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William Ashley

William Ashley

William Ashley was born in Chesterfield County, Virginia, in about 1778. As a young man he moved to Missouri where he became a trader at St. Genevieve. He then joined the army and by 1812 had reached the rank of lieutenant colonel.

Ashley moved to St Louis and in 1819 was elected lieutenant governor of Missouri in 1820. Ashley and Andrew Henry decided to form the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. On 13th February, 1822, they placed an advertisement in the Missouri Gazette and Public Adviser where he called for 100 enterprising men to "ascend the river Missouri" to take part in the fur collecting business. Those who agreed to join the party included James Bridger, Tom Fitzpatrick, William Sublette, Jim Beckwourth, David Jackson, Hugh Glass, Jedediah Smith, James Clyman and Edward Rose.

Ashley's company was the first to depend primarily upon trapping the beaver rather than buying them from Native Americans. Ashley did not pay the trappers a fixed wage. Instead, in return for transporting them to the Rocky Mountains, he took a share in the furs they obtained.

On 30th May, 1823, Ashley and his party of 70 men were attacked by 600 Arikaras. Twelve of Ashley's men were killed and the rest were forced to retreat. Jedediah Smith volunteered to contact Andrew Henry and bring back reinforcements. A message was sent back to St Louis and Colonel Henry Leavenworth of the U.S. Sixth Infantry and later 200 soldiers and 700 Sioux allies attacked the Arikara villages.

In 1825 Ashley put Jedediah Smith in charge of the trappers and returned to St Louis. The following year he sold his business to Smith and two other mountain men.

Ashley now entered politics and was elected to the House of Representatives but was twice defeated for the post of governor.

William Ashley died of pneumonia on 26th March, 1838.

After an unremitting and severe labour of two days, we returned to our old encampment with the loss of some of my horses, and my men excessively fatigued. We found the snow to be from three to five feet in depth and so firmly settled as to render our passage through it wholly impracticable. This mountain is timbered with a beautiful growth of white pine and from every appearance is a delightful country to travel over in the summer season. After remaining one day longer at the camp to rest my men and horses, I left it a second time and travelled northwardly along the base of the mountains. As I thus advanced, I was delighted with the variegated scenery presented by the valleys and mountains, which were enlivened by innumerable herds of buffalo antelope, and mountain sheep grazing on them, and what added no small degree of interest to the whole scene, were the many small streams issuing from the mountains, bordered with a thin growth of small willows and richly stocked with beaver. As my men could profitably employ themselves on these streams, I moved slowly along, averaging not more than five or six miles per day and sometimes remained two days at the same encampment.

Jedediah Smith, a very intelligent and confidential young man, who had charge of a small detachment, stated that he had, in the fall of 1824, crossed from the headwaters of the Rio Colorado to Lewis fork of the Columbia and down the same about one hundred miles, thence northwardly to Clark's fork of the Columbia, where he found a trading establishment of the Hudson Bay company, where he remained for some weeks. Mr. Smith ascertained from the gentleman who had charge of that establishment, that the Hudson Bay company had then in their employment, trading with the Indians and trapping beaver on both sides of the Rocky mountains, about 80 men, 60 of whom were generally employed as trappers and confined their operations to that district called the Snake country, which Mr. Smith understood as being confined to the district claimed by the Shoshone Indians. It appeared from the account, that they had taken in the last four years within that district eighty thousand beaver, equal to one hundred and sixty thousand pounds of furs.

You can form some idea of the quantity of beaver that country once possessed, when I tell you that some of our hunters had taken upwards of one hundred in the last spring hunt out of streams which had been trapped, as I am informed, every season for the last four years.

Some of the Indians arrived last evening with their families others early this morning. I invited their chiefs& warriors to smoke informed them that I wanted to purchase 7 horses & showed them the goods that I would give for them. They expressed satisfaction at the liberal offer made them, but such is the use that they make of their horses and the value they set on them that I with difficulty purchased two - they expressed great friendship for the Americans & their conduct verify their professions, I was much surprised at the appearance of these people I expected to find them a poor lifeless set of beings, destitute of the means or disposition to defend themselves; alarmed at the sight of a white man but to the contrary, They met me with great familiarity and ease of manner were clothed in mountain sheep skin & buffalo robes superior to any band of Indians in my knowledge west of Council Bluffs.

I set out on my way homewards with 50 men, 25 of whom were to accompany me to a navigable point of the Big Horn river, thence to return with the horses employed in the transportation of the furs. I had forty-five packs of beaver cached a few miles east of our direct route. I took with me 20 men, passed by the place, raised the cache, and proceeded in a direction to join the other party, but, previous to joining them, I was twice attacked by Indians first by a party of Blackfeet about 60 in number. They made their appearance at the break of day, yelling in the most hideous manner and using every means in their power to alarm our horses, although closely hobbled, broke by the guard and ran off. A part of the Indians being mounted, they succeeded in getting all the horses except two, and wounded one man. An attempt was also made to take our camp, but in that they failed. The following night, I sent an express to secure horses from the party of our men who had taken a direct route. In two days thereafter, I received the desired aid and again proceeded on my way, made about ten miles, and encamped upon an eligible situation. That night, about 12 o'clock, we were again attacked by a war party of Crow Indians, which resulted in the loss of one of the Indians killed and another shot through the body, without any injury to us. The next day I joined my other party and proceeded direct to my place of embarkation just below the Big Horn mountain, where I arrived on the 7th day of August.

On my passage thither, I discovered nothing remarkable in the features of the country. It affords generally a smooth way to travel over. The only very rugged part of the route is in crossing the Big Horn mountain, which is about 30 miles wide. I had the Big Horn river explored from Wind River mountain to my place of embarkation. There is little or no difficulty in the navigation of that river from its mouth to Wind River mountain. It may be ascended that far at a tolerable stage of water with a boat drawing three feet water. The Yellowstone river is a beautiful river to navigate. It has rapids extending from above Powder river about fifty miles but I found about four feet water over the most.


William Ashley

Mountain Men - such as the one shown above - were recruited as part of Ashley's Hundred

By 1822 William Ashley had made quite a successful life for himself. He had earned a sizeable sum of money mining saltpeter from a cave in Missouri for the manufacture of gunpowder. During the war of 1812 he had earned the rank of Brigadier General in the Missouri state militia. In 1820 he was even named Lieutenant Governor of his adopted state. Yet Ashley had greater ambitions, which soon became evident in a famous advertisement he and partner Andrew Henry ran in St. Louis newspapers.

“Ashley’s Hundred”
They sought “enterprising young men to ascend the Missouri River to its source” for fur trapping of up to three years, thus the Rocky Mountain Fur Company was born in 1822. The young men who responded to the advertisement are a veritable who’s who of frontier history. Jim Bridger, Jedediah Smith, Jim Beckwourth, William Sublette, the list goes on, to the point where they are known as “Ashley’s Hundred.”

All of these men had at least two things in common: a thirst for adventure and they would be led by Ashley. In effect, Ashley and Henry’s advertisement would lead to the first explorations of Bighorn Canyon country.

The Rocky Mountain Fur Company would be competing head to head with the Missouri Fur Company. It would need to make incursions into new territory, in search of rich beaver trapping areas. The first expedition in Bighorn Canyon country took place in 1823 when the company sent couriers across the Bad Pass Trail taking messages to the Wind River region of Wyoming.

These messages made trappers aware that there would be a rendezvous on the Yellowstone with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company supplying trade goods. While this did meet with some success, Ashley had a visionary idea for the coming years that would dramatically change the way fur trading was conducted. Instead of having the trappers come to their posts, the Ashley-Henry partnership would take trade goods to a predetermined meeting place where trappers could bring their furs to trade in return for variety of goods. Thus was born the Rendezvous.

Perfecting The Rendezvous
In 1824 following a nightmarish expedition -characterized by hardship, hostile activity and low profits - Ashley's founding partner, Andrew Henry, quit the fur trade. Ashley took to the field on a historic trip that forever changed the fur trade.

Ashley and his men set out on the expedition in the fall of 1824. They would cover parts of present day Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho and Utah. Nine months later, in early July of 1825, a highly successful rendezvous was held on the Henry’s Fork of Green River in what is today western Wyoming. From this rendezvous, Ashley and his men returned via the Bad Pass Trail. The Bad Pass was a detour across the rugged land west of Bighorn Canyon. Ashley would dare not chance having his rich packs of beaver furs lost in the unpredictable waters of the Bighorn.

One member of this inaugural expedition did chance the rapids though. Jim Bridger, mountain man par excellence, built a boat out of driftwood and managed to navigate the Bighorn, making the first recorded passage through the canyon. By August 7 th , Ashley’s party arrived just below the mouth of the canyon - the end of the Bad Pass Trail - at Grapevine Creek. Here they constructed bullboats over the next 5 days, floating the Bighorn. Part of the company, led by William Sublette was sent back over the Bad Pass Trail to continue trapping around the Green River area.

Value And Efficiency
The river run back was uneventful for Ashley and the other members of his company. On October 4, 1825 they arrived in St. Louis with 100 packs of beaver pelts valued at $50,000. The significance and success of Ashley’s trip was long lasting.

The rendezvous system brought trade goods and supplies to the mountain men at a central, predetermined point. This would occur at the height of the summer, when beavers had left the streams. The trade goods would now be brought out on an overland route, thus the fur trade was no longer tied to water routes. Ashley’s company would worry about navigating the waterways back to St. Louis, all the trappers had to do was show up at a fixed place. Furs would now be trapped by small groups who had a vested interest in the rendezvous system.

They could stay out in the field longer, while the rendezvous became their once a year lifeline. The rendezvous became more then just a trading place, it turned into a weeks long festival whereby the trappers would eat, drink, play games, and tell stories. These meetings became a way of life.

Changes In Style
Ashley's involvement with the fur trade was short lived, though his system’s legacy lived on for over a decade. Though he had innovated the rendezvous system, Ashley sold out in 1826. From then on, he turned his attention to politics. Three times he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in the 1830’s. In 1836, he turned away from national politics and attempted to run for Governor of Missouri. He would lose badly, ironically because his pro-business stance happened to be out of vogue at the moment.

In Ashley’s absence, the rendezvous continued to grow. It peaked in the early 1830’s. By the time Ashley passed away in 1838 beaver resources were depleted and a change in style away from beaver fur hats led to the end of the rendezvous. Nonetheless, William Ashley’s innovative business sense had changed the West forever. Now previously remote regions such as Bighorn Canyon were becoming known.


Further Reading

There is no biography of Ashley, but Dale L. Morgan, ed., The West of William H. Ashley (1964), gives the most complete account of his life. See also Harrison C. Dale, ed., The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery of a Central Route to the Pacific, 1822-1829 (1918). Dale L. Morgan, Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West (1953), gives much collateral material. For a general account of the fur trade see Hiram M. Chittenden, The American Fur Trade of the Far West (3 vols., 1902 2d ed., 2 vols., 1935).


William Ashley - History

William Henry Ashley was born a poor man in Powhatan County,Virginia in 1778. He later moved to St. Genevieve, Mo. (then Upper Louisiana), in 1803. This area had been controlled by the Spanish until late 1800 when it was ceded by Spain to France. On Easter, 1803, Napoleon announced his decision to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States. Ashley was in this new territorty the year that it became part of the U.S. He arrived in this new territory with "a knowledge of surveying and a slight familiarity with geology".

Lewis & Clark began their historic expedition from near St. Louis May 21, 1804 and returned to St. Loius on Sept. 23, 1806. They used the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers much the same way that Ashley and his men would in later years.

Ashley moved to St. Louis around 1808 and became a Brigadier General in the Missouri Militia during the War of 1812. Before the war, he operated a gunpowder factory after discovering a cave in Texas County, Missouri that was a source of saltpeter, a vital ingredient of gunpowder. His future partner, Andrew Henry owned a factory that produced bullets. This is how the two earned their first fortunes.


The Ashley Hawken Part I - Muzzle Blasts Archives

The Ashley Hawken was built specifically for General William Henry Ashley, by Jacob and Samuel Hawken, to defend his keelboats from hostile Indians, as the fur traders went up the Missouri River to establish trading posts. The rifle needed to be capable of shooting farther than the trade guns used by the Indians, who would often shoot down from the overhanging banks along the river, as the keelboats passed. Therefore, a ‘Super Hawken’ was built that could throw a one ounce ball with accuracy beyond 200 yards.

The year was 1822. General Ashley and his partner William Henry, had placed the famous advertisement in the St. Louis newspaper on February 13, for “one hundred enterprising young men, to ascent the Missouri River to its source and be employed for one to three years trapping for furs”. The men who responded to the ad eventually became the who’s who of the American fur trade, including such greats as Jim Bridger, Hugh Glass, Jedediah Smith, William Sublette, David Jackson, James Clyman, Jim Beckwourth and Thomas Fitzpatrick

In April 1822, Henry and the free trappers, who responded to the newspaper advertisement, ascended the Missouri River to the mouth of the Yellowstone River in a keelboat, and later established Fort Henry near the Montana-North Dakota state line. A second boat with their supplies for the winter left St. Louis one month later, but sank only 300 miles up river from St. Louis. A dispatch was sent to General Ashley in St. Louis who in 18-days, obtain credit and assembled another supply boat. This time Ashley went with the supply boat and arrived at Ft. Henry in October. Able to supply the fort, he left Fort Henry and returned to St. Louis to prepare for the 1823 season.

Keelboats, which displaced only about two feet of water, were often used by the fur traders on the shallow waters of the Missouri River. They were usually from 40 to 80 feet long, and were built with a strong central keel that helped deflect obstacles in the shallow water. Except for a rare day in which the sail was useful, they were either rowed, poled or pulled upstream by the crew of 20 to 30 men.

Swivel cannons were often utilized on river boats for short-range defense. They ranged from 18” to 36” in length and had a smooth bore from one to two inches in diameter. This bore was quite suitable for a hand-full of musket balls, but only effective for short-range defense. The Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-1806 had a swivel gun mounted on the bow of their keelboat by Captain Clark, but it was never used.

It was probably during the winter of 1822/23, after returning from his first trip up the Missouri River, that General Ashley commissioned the Hawken gunsmithing shop to build a Super Hawken, to help combat the continuing harassment of his keelboats by the Indians. The gun was to be designed for long-range shooting, and capable of reaching with accuracy the numerous river bluffs, which lie above the Missouri River.

We know only three things for certain about the Ashley Hawken from information given in a 1882 newspaper interview with Sam Hawken. First, it was built by the Hawken shop for General Ashley. When Sam Hawken gave the newspaper interview, he was 90 years old, and was very ‘inclusive’ in his remembrance of the early years. In 1821 Jacob was listed in the first city directory as a gunsmith. Sam arrived in St. Louis on June 3, 1822, a year later. Sam simply recalled that “ We supplied the gun to Ashley”.

I don’t believe that it has been pointed out before, but this rifle would have been J.&S. Hawken rifle Serial #1, or the first rifle built with the combined talents of both Jacob and Samuel Hawken. In the newspaper interview, Sam called it a “Super Rifle”, because it fired a one ounce ball from a three and one-half foot long barrel. These basic specifications leave considerable room to speculate about all of its features, but some other clues can help us determine its probable configuration.

Jacob Hawken came to St. Louis in 1819, after working from 1808-1818 at the Harper’s Ferry Arsenal in Virginia. He was very familiar with the strong and weak features of the U.S. Model 1803 Harper’s Ferry rifle and later models of U.S. Government rifles. He watched as brass fittings gave way to stronger steel fittings. The caliber of the Government models was increased to 69-caliber to extend their effective range. The barrels of the latest 1821 Models were round and a full 42” long.

When Jacob Hawken came to St. Louis, he and James Lakenan, another gunsmith who had worked at the Richmond, Virginia armory, shared a log house from 1820 to 1825. Jake, and later Sam, were both influenced by the Virginia gunsmith James Lakenan, and the iron-mounted rifles which originated from the Virginia region on the east coast. The Super Hawken that was to be built for Ashley would naturally be the product of Jake Hawken and James Lakenan’s experiences during their many years working at the armories.

A fourth, and often unmentioned feature of the Ashley Hawken, is that it was a flintlock. Irrespective as to when the percussion cap was originally invented in Europe, they were first seen on the east coast in 1825/26, and later first advertised for sale in St. Louis in 1831. The Ashley Hawken predated the introduction of the percussion cap in the St. Louis area, and it was a flint ignition rifle. Because of Jake’s familiarity with the 1803 through 1821 U.S. Government rifles, he would have probably chosen one of the large and dependable flint locks that were used on the U.S. Springfield musket models.

As reported in the August, 1976 issue of the The Buckskin Report, there was an earlier attempt to build a rendition of General Ashley’s 69-caliber flintlock Hawken. Such notables of the time combined their talents to make John ‘Dinglehoofer’ Baird a copy of Ashley’s Hawken. They were Andy Baker (stockmaker), Bill Large (barrel maker), Tom Dawson (flintlock), Bob Roller (triggers), Jack Haugh (trigger guard), Bill Fuller (buttplate), Randy Cochran (wood) and Tony Lageose (engraving). The finished rifle weighed 11.75 pounds and boasted a 37-1/2” long octagonal barrel with a thickness of 1.1875” at the breech and 1.0625” at the muzzle. The full-stocked rifle was exhibited and fired at Friendship, IN with a 0.690” diameter round ball, a 0.016” thick denim patch, and 160 grains of GOI 2FFg black powder. Its power and recoil were impressive…!

Pictures of this rifle shows its styling be more representative of an early J.&S. Hawken full-stocked rifle with iron fixtures. I believe that a better interpretation of the original rifle can now be made. Before starting my recreation of Ashley’s Super Hawken, I consulted with Don Stith, Bob Roller, and other Hawken bugs of today. The following is my reasoning for selecting the rifle’s basic components.

Caliber --In Sam Hawken’s 1882 newspaper interview, he says that Ashley’s Hawken threw a one ounce ball. Technically, a one ounce ball would weigh 437.5 grains or be about 0.660” in diameter. In the literature, I have seen the caliber quoted from everything from 66 to 69-caliber. The U.S. Springfield Musket--Model 1821, the last flintlock musket procured by the U.S. Army, was a 69-caliber smooth-bore. I believe that Sam’s reference to a ‘one ounce ball’ would refer to the 69-caliber ball which was the norm of day, and used in the most advanced long-range muskets made prior to 1822.

Barrel --According to Sam Hawken, the barrel was three and one-half feet (42”) long, or the same length as the U.S. Springfield Musket--Model 1821. This length of barrel would be required to get adequate velocity from a 69-caliber ball for long-range shooting. To obtain the accuracy required at 200 yards, the barrel would have had to be rifled. Jake knew that an octagonal barrel was stronger than the round barrels that were used on the the U.S. muskets, and as a bonus, it would add some weight to the rifle to lessen felt recoil.

Lock --I believe that Jake would have used a flint lock similar to or taken off one of the U.S. Springfield Model 1803 to 1821 models. They were large and dependable--using a large musket-sized flint to produce a massive amount of sparks. These locks utilized a reinforced hammer to strengthen the hammer, hereby giving a smaller chance of breakage with repeated, hard use.

Buttplate --I believe that Jake would have used a flat iron buttplate as was standard on the military models. A flat buttplate would have lessened the effects of felt recoil much better than the crescent-type buttplates used on Kentucky and later Hawken rifles.

Triggers and Guard --I believe that Jake would have wanted to incorporate a double-set trigger system on the rifle to enhance precise shooting at the longer distances. To accommodate the double-set triggers, an English-style trigger guard with a large bow was probably used.

Stock --The U.S. Springfield Model 1821 used a full-length stock with its 42” barrel. Jake would have given the stock a more Tennessee-type stock design with a thinner wrist to incorporate the double-set triggers, all in combination with a long tang for added strength. Either American walnut or maple would be suitable. A small patchbox similar to the 1803 Harper’s Ferry, but made of steel, would be appropriate for that period and for the Rocky Mountains!

In Part II, I will detail the construction of a rifle to match the known and proposed features of the Ashley Hawken.

This article was featured in Muzzle Blasts magazine in July 2017. A digital archive of Muzzle Blasts magazines from 1939 to present is available to all NMLRA members.


3 thoughts on &ldquoWilliam Ashley and the Rocky Mountain Fur Company&rdquo

Your “facts” are faulty.
Ashley and Henry did partner in a fur trading/trapping enterprise starting in 1822. However they did not name it “Rocky Mountain Fur Company”. Neither did the company that bought out Ashley – “Smith, Jackson and Sublett”. Following “SJ&S” another group of trappers – Thomas Fitzpatric, Jim Bridger, Milton G Sublett, Henry Fraeb and Jeane Baptiste Gervais – bought out SJ&S. This group named their enterprise “The Rocky Mountain Fur Company”

Interesting. While I did find one reference (True West Magazine article) agreeing with your comment, several other references I found show the Rocky Mountain Fur Company organized in 1822, including the Encyclopedia Britannica. Can you point us to another source, we’d be happy to correct and properly attribute? Thanks!


Mountain man James Beckwourth is born

James Beckwourth, one of only a handful of early mountain men to emerge from the system of slavery, is born in Fredericksburg, Virginia.

The exact year of Beckwourth’s birth is in dispute. Some historians suggest it may have been 1800 rather than 1798. The uncertainty arises both from Beckwourth’s notorious reputation for exaggerating and rewriting his own history, as well as the humble circumstances of his birth. The child of a white plantation owner and a Black woman who was likely enslaved, Beckwourth was born into a society that paid little notice to children born of Black mothers.

During his childhood, Beckwourth may have been enslaved. However, by the time he reached adulthood in St. Louis, Missouri, his master had apparently manumitted him and he was regarded as a free Black man. In 1824, he joined William Ashley’s third and most arduous fur-trapping expedition to the Rocky Mountains. Beckwourth received a crash course in the dangers of mountain life, just barely managing to avoid death by freezing or starvation. Despite the risks, Beckwourth enjoyed being a mountain man, and he spent the next several years as a free trapper.

Trapping in the Powder River country of Wyoming, Beckwourth began to forge a close alliance with the Crow Indians. Sometime between 1826-1828, he abandoned American society altogether and joined the Crow people. The Crow had long been friendly with trappers, and they apparently welcomed Beckwourth into their society. Beckwourth learned the Crow language, customs, and ways of living, and he married at least two Crow women and fathered several children. Beckwourth later claimed that he became a powerful chief among the Crow, though historians have questioned whether this was another of his exaggerations.


William Ashley - History

Ashley went up alongside the Missouri River, then up the Platte River and finally the South Platte River until it reached the Front Range of the Rockies. At this point, he headed in a northwesterly direction until he reached the wide and sandy pass that is now known as South Pass in southwestern Wyoming. This pass at 7,000 ft. remained snow free longer than the mountains on either side.

The Rocky Moutains presented a major detriment to western settlement. Much of Ashley's route from St. Louis and through South Pass later became the Oregon Trail which led to the California Trail. The tracks left by the wagon that Ashley had on the expedition were later used by the first wagon trains as they made their way across the country in a migration that saw hundreds of thousands of settlers move west. The Pony Express came through South Pass in 1860 as well as the Mormons that settled Utah earlier in 1847.

All of this trailblazing was being accomplished by the ambitous, but reluctant adventurer, William Ashley. Lewis and Clark had crossed the Rockies, but they made their crossing farther north near where Yellowstone is located and much too far north to be considered a viable route for the settlers.


Sir William Ashley: Some Unpublished Letters*

1 On Ashley see, Ashley , Anne , William James Ashley, a Life ( London , 1932 )Google Scholar Usher , A. P. , “ William James Ashley: A Pioneer in Higher Education ,” Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science , 05 1938 , pp. 151 –03CrossRefGoogle Scholar “William James Ashley,” Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences.

2 , James and Artevelde , Philip van , Lothian Prize Essay ( London , 1882 ).Google Scholar

3 Arnold Toynbee (1852-83), a disciple of T. H. Green, was led to economic history by his philanthropy. He was a tutor at Balliol when his lectures on the Industrial Revolution were given in 1881-82.

4 At the University of Toronto.

5 McEvoy , J. M. , The Ontario Township , Toronto University Studies in Political Science, Series 1, No. 1, edited by Ashley , J. W. ( Toronto , 1889 ).Google Scholar

6 Only Sinclair , A. H. , Municipal Monopolies and their Management , Toronto University Studies in Political Science, Series 1, No. 2, edited by Ashley , J. W. ( Toronto , 1891 ), was publishedGoogle Scholar .

7 An Introduction to English Economic History and Theory ( London , 1888 ).Google Scholar

8 The second volume appeared in 1893.

9 Unions, though long established in Canada, still found little favor with the general public. See Part II of Logan , H. A. , Trade Unions in Canada Their Development and Functioning ( London , 1948 )Google Scholar .

10 Schonberg , Gustav von , Handbuch der politischen Ockpnomie … Herausgegeben von Gustav von Schonberg , 2 vols. ( Tubingen , 1882 ).Google Scholar

11 “The Rehabilitation of Ricardo,” September 1891, pp. 474-89.

12 “General Booth's Panacea,” pp. 537-50.

13 Dunbar , Charles Franklin was the first professor of Political Economy at Harvard (1871-1900) and the founder and first editor of the Quarterly Journal of Economics ( 1876 – 1894 ).Google Scholar

14 Schulze-Gaevernitz , Gerhard von , Zum socialen Frieden, Eine Darstellung der social-politischen Erziehung des englischen Voltes im neunzehnten Jahrhundert , 2 vols. ( Leipzig , 1890 ).Google Scholar

15 The German translation of Ashley's Economic History appeared in 1896 as one of a series of texts edited by Brentano , L. and Leser , E. , Sammlung Slterer und neurer staatsunssen-schajflicker Schriften des In- und Auslandes ( Leipzig , 1893 , etc)Google Scholar .

17 “ The Beginnings of Town Life in the Middle Ages ,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , 07 1896 , pp. 359 – 406 .Google Scholar

18 Turgot , A. R. J. ( 1727 - 1781 ), Reflections on the Formation and the Distribution of Riches (1770) ( New York , 1898 ).Google Scholar

19 Agrarpolitik. Ein lehrbuch von dr. Lujo Brentano. I teil: theoretische einleitung in die agrarpolitik . ( Stuttgart , 1897 ) (no more published).Google Scholar

20 The Adjustment of Wages a Study in the Coal and Iron Industries of Great Britain and America ( London , 1903 ).Google Scholar

21 The Tariff Problem ( London , 1903 )Google Scholar The Progress of the German Wording Classes in the Last Quarter of a Century ( London , 1904 )Google Scholar .

22 Oher syndicalism us und lohnminimum etc. ( Munich , 1913 ).Google Scholar

23 Tom Mann, leader of the great dock strike of 1889, first Secretary of the Independent Labour Party, was a professional agitator of' revolutionary bent, first on syndicalist and then on communist lines. On Mann's syndicalist movement see S. and Webb , B. , The History of Trade Unionism ( London , 1926 ), pp. 657 –59Google Scholar .

24 On this matter see, The Miners' Next Step ( London , 1912 ).Google Scholar


William Ashley - History


Pioneers in the Ashley Valley in 1880


Source: "Builders of Uintah : a centennial history of Uintah County, 1872 to 1947"
Printed by Art City Publishing Co., Springville, Utah 1947

Transcribed by G.T. Transcription Team

SETTLEMENT OF ASHLEY VALLEY

It was the summer of 1776, when a party composed of ten Spaniards started on a journey their only traveling companions were a few sturdy burros. This was the Escalante expedition from Santa Fe, who were seeking amore direct route to Monterey, California. After many days of travel they came to a river bordered by waving green trees and willows which Escalante named Rio Buenaventura. (Beautiful Adventure.) It was late called Green River. After camping on the banks of the river for two days, they pushed bravely on into another area of dry country, not knowing were they would find more water. They had not gone many miles until, mounting the summit of a little hill, they gazed down into Ashley Valley. The land was dry and arid, the soil sandy, and the vegetation consisted mostly of sage brush, cactus, and other desert plants, but through the northern section ran a narrow ribbonlike creek. This creek is now called Ashley Creek.

Other than the score of wild animals, Escalante found there only the Indians. These Indians were a Nomadic people. Their food consisted chiefly of the meat from the buffalo, deer, antelope, and smaller game, but this was varied with squash and corn which they raised and with the berried of wild shrubs growing farther up the hills. The Indians made their implements of chipping flint into crude shapes and their cooking utensils were moulded from clay such was the Ashley Valley and its inhabitants in 1776. Though he did not stop here, Escalante mentioned the place in his diary.

After Escalante's entrance there is no record of the Valley's being visited by white men until 1825, when General Ashley passed through, leaving his name to both creek and valley. He was with Andrew Henry, the founder of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company on a trapping expedition. With their party was a young man, Jim Bridger, who afterward received much fame as a frontiersman.

Ouray Valley was about the first place in Utah to be explored by white men.

Green River was named in the year of 1825. The name was given by one of William N. Ashley's fur trappers, whose name was Green. After leaving Green River, this company came to the Ashley Creek. This creek was named for William N. Ashley, Who was the one to help organize and manage the Rocky Mountain Fur Co.

The bones and horns that have been found signify that great herds of buffalo have lived in the Basin. They were all held here by a hard winter before the first settlers came to Utah.

On July 21, 1851, the Uintah Indian Agency was established b proclamation, by Abraham Lincoln. Governor Brigham Young also held the office to superintend the Indian affair, under appointment made by the president of the United States. The agency was made in the Uintah Basin. Lieutenant Pardon Dodds was the first agent to take charge on this reservation. He received his appointment in 1867.

Mr. Dodds was born in Irie (sic), Pennsylvania, in 1827 on March 13. He left home at the age of fifteen and went to Wisconsin. He was always self supporting from then on.

He finished common school and had entered college when the Civil War broke out. This ended his schooling. He entered the Civil War and was appointed to the rank of Second Lieutenant and was discharged from the army in 1865, coming to Salt Lake City, Utah, on Sept. 7, 1866. He was appointed agent for the Indians and took over the agency in the fall of 1867. He was first located on the upper Duchesne and then moved to Rock Creek and from there to Whiterocks.

It seems that some of the early settlers have questioned his appointment and in an excerpt written b himself he said: "I was appointed agent under $20,000 bond under President Andrew Jackson."

The journal reads that he reached Whiterocks on Christmas Day, 1868, where the Uintah agency was established. (Whiterocks is the oldest settlement in Uintah County, not counting, of course, the old trading posts. Critchlow succeeded Dodds as agent in 1872. Then Pardon Dodds came back as agent as a stockman to Ashley Valley in 1873 on February 14. With him was Morris Evans and Dick Huffaker. They erected the first house ever built by white men in 1873. All of the work from timber to dirt roof was done by them the windows were brought from Salt Lake. The main part of the building was first built to afford them shelter and as time permitted, the lean-to was soon added. The house served as a home for the Dodds family form 1873 to 1897 when a large frame house was erected.

Mr. Dodds went with Major Powell on one of his trips down the Colorado after he retired from government service. He was appointed by an act of legislature, a Selectman in and for Uintah county, Utah. He was appointed by Governor Eli H. Murray in 1880. In 1883, January 18, he was appointed prosecuting attorney for Uintah County, by Governor Murray.

John Blankenship joined the Dodds party and during their journey they fell in with Professor Marsh and a group of students from Yale University, who gave the name of Marsh Peak to the prominent mountain top usually called "Baldy." Captain Dodds died Sept. 4, 1921 at the age of 84 years.

Alfred Harvey Westover and Jimmie Rineman came here together June 10, 1876. John Kelley was the first man to build a house this side of the creek where the Ira Burton place is. This was the second house built and Jimmie Rineman built the third.


SNYDER FAMILY
Robert Snyder arrived in the Ashley Valley on the 16th of November, 1876. Mr. and Mrs. Robert Snyder, daughter Ida, who was one year old, and a girl by the name f Clara Crouch who came to work for Mrs. Snyder. She later married Al Westover. She and Miss Crouch were the first white women to come to the valley to make a home and blaze a trail for all who are now living her, enjoying comfortable homes and surroundings. Mr. Snyder came to the Basin with cattle about a year before he moved his family in. They settled on Ashley Creek on the place where David Timothy lived. The snow of winter came and shed its white blessings over the valley and mountains. Major Critchlow and wife of Whiterocks came to visit the Snyders that winter. She was the only white lady they saw all winter.
Spring came with its long, sunshiny days and on May 11, 1878, a baby boy brightened the little log cabin of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Snyder. This was the first white child born here and was named Robert Ashley Snyder. On the 16th of June, 1878, Robert Snyder was killed by lightning in his dooryard, leaving Mrs. Snyder with two children to pioneer the wilderness. March 22, 1881, at the age of three, little Robert died. In the fall of 1881, Mrs. Snyder married William Preece and remained here to make her home. Being public-spirited, they did much for our valley and are outstanding characters of our early history.

EARLY PIONEER FAMILIES
During the coming summer autumn of 1876 and 1877, a number of persons moved in, among them were: Mr. and Mrs. William Gibson, Mr. and Mrs. John Fairchild, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hardy, Mr. and Mrs. Alma Taylor, William Powell, Lewis Kabell, Al Westover, S. P. Dillman, Jimmy Aiverman, Perry Decker, Pat Lynch, Robert Blankenship, Mr. Mason, Mr. downing, William Britt and Fin Britt, and James Gibson.

Once a week carriers, riding horseback or wearing snowshoes, brought the mail in from Green River City, Wyoming. The Gibsons and Dodds had stores on their ranches later Gibsons moved their store to old Ashley Town. Lycurgus Johnson also had a store there. Church was held in the homes of the people. The first Sunday School was organized on Washington's Birthday, Feb. 22, 1880, with Alfred Johnson as Superintendent. Later, a log schoolhouse was built from donations by the Latter-day Saints it stood just south of the old David Timothy farm. William Britt taught school in an old schoolhouse on Gibson's farm in 1878 Other accounts acclaim Mr. Britt the first teacher. MR. S. P. Dillman said: "I moved to Ashley Valley in September, 1877. In the fall of ‘78 we built a log schoolhouse near the center of what is knows as the Nathan C. Davis farm, a little east of Joseph Hardy's. That winter William Britt became Ashley Valley's first schoolteacher and taught a three –months' term of school.

In 1879, while the Indian excitement was on, the Indians advised the people to move together. Those who moved their cabins to Old Ashley Town were: W. C. Britt and wife, a Alfred Johnson, Dick Huffaker and wife, Joseph Hardy and family, Lycurgus Johnson and wife, Charles Bentley and wife, Allen Davis and Wife, ( S. D. Colton came with his family but did not move into town), Venn Gundy and daughter Cora, and Minnie Jasperson. The single men were: S. D. Dillman, Finn Britt, John Steinaker, John Blankenship, Dan Brucil, Pat Carrell, James Rineman, Louis Cabell, Alfred Westover, MR. Hall, James Barker, Francis Hiatt, and John Kelley.

It seems evident that the first settlement centered near the Pardon Dodds ranch and is known as Old Ashley Town, which is some two or three miles northwest of the present Vernal City. Another settlement on Green River near the present town of Jensen, and a neighborhood community in the Dry Fork, all seemed to evolve before the town of Vernal emerged. However, in 1879 and 1880, there were several families on the site where Vernal afterwards was located. To Old Ashley Town we turn our attention where we get a mental picture of the first laces of business.

The business places in '79 were: the Britt store and post office with an attic room where the boarders slept: Gibson's store, and Bentley's saloon. Huffakers also had rooms upstairs for extra cattlemen that came to town, among whom were: A. C. Hatch (Judge), Will Willis, Charles Jasperson, George Baser, Andy Strong, Jack Edwards, Griff Edwards, Charles Hill and a brother Dave, Dan Mosby, Fletcher Hammond, Charley Grouse from Brown's Park, etc. In 1882 Brown and Luxen started a saloon. Clurg Johnson also started a store.

THE BINGHAM PARTY
In 1877 another company came to Ashley Valley under the direction of Thomas Bingham, Sr. He had been a member of the Mormon Battalion and at this time was living in Weber County. In the summer of 1877 he with his son and some others came to look over the Valley. He returned to his home in Huntsville in Weber County and made a report of his findings to President John Taylor. From him Elder Bingham received permission to organize a small company and aid in the settlement of Ashley Valley. They left in November, 1877, and coming over the Uintahs via Evanston and Brown's Park, arrived in the lower end of Ashley Valley on the Green River in December, 1877.

The party consisted of Thomas Bingham and wife, David H. Bingham and family, Enoch Burns and son, Frederic, G. Williams and family, Alma Taylor and two children, Joshua Chell Hall and wife, Lola and child, Orson Hall, Charles Allan, Charles A. Nye, Ben Lofgren, Neils Lofgren, Charles Jensen and John Nelson and family. At Evanston these were joined by a party who came along with the Bingham party. They were Allen Beceus, George Carry, Richard Veltman and Bill Bunnell. After contacting the people who had preceded him, he took a complete census of the whole population and sent it to President John Taylor at Salt Lake City.

At a meeting held on Green River in January, 1878, Thomas Bingham, Sr., was chosen by those present to preside over them. Thus he became the first presiding elder in Uintah Basin.

Deseret News, May 25, 1878: There are about 100 inhabitants in this precinct…The roads that lead to this place, whether by Fort Bridger or Heber, are very rough and twenty hundred is a heavy load for four animals …There are as yet no mills in the country …We have applied for a post office and mail route to this place and expect it will be established this summer.

In the early civil and ecclesiastic affairs the Binghams played an important role. Thomas Bingham eventually moved to Dry Fork, an account of which appears later.

Mr. and Mrs. William Gibson landed here from Kamas on the first day of November, 1877. They located on the place where they now live. They brought 35 head of cattle and enough provisions to do them for a year or more. The winter was very mild and they lived in a house without doors or windows. While Mr. Gibson was away after supplies two years later, the Indian troubles began over the line in Colorado.

Mrs. Gibson, being afraid, went to Old Ashley Town where the rest of the settlers had gathered. When Mr. Gibson returned he moved their sawed log hose which they had built on their ranch during the summer (sawing the logs with a whip saw) to Old Ashley Town, where they lived for a year, then returned to their ranch. They sold their hose in Ashley Town to the county for a court house. It was used for this purpose four or five years. The county then moved it to Hatch Town, which is now Vernal, where it was used for many years as a county building. Being remodeled, it is still a neat looking building and stands on the corner just east of the Uintah Railway Office.

In 1878 the first Fourth of July celebration was held. There were only five women present: Mrs. William Gibson, Mrs. Robert Snyder, Mrs. Chell Hall, Mrs. George W. Hislop, and Mrs. Alfred Johnson (all deceased.)


THE HATCH FAMILY
In the early establishment of Ashley Valley, the Hatches played a most significant role. Previous mention has been made of the Old Ashley settlement, the Dry Fork neighborhood, and of the individuals who settled near the present Jensens on Green River. To the Hatches must go the credit for forming the nucleus of a settlement on what was called the bench, now where Vernal is. It was called the "bench" because it was up off the river. You could see miles across it there was not a tree, a shrub or a green twig of any king. Indeed, the bench-which is no bench to us-was a different appearing spectacle when Escalante, Ashley and others peered across it.

Mr. Hatch came to Ashley with Abraham Chase Hatch in the spring of 1878. Mr. A. A. Hatch claims the distinction of being the first settler on the bench. Andrew Jensen in his history of Uintah Stake, written in 1892, states: Jeremiah Hatch … built the second house in Ashley Center. David Johnston had already built the first." "Down on the creek (east) there were two bachelors at the time, McKnight and McFarley by name, but they hadn't any places on the bench," states Mr. Hatch, Jeremiah Hatch and family came to Uintah as early pioneers and in the cause of settlement of this eastern part of Utah.

No crops were put in by the Hatches in the year of 1878. A. A. Hatch made three trips to bring in all his belongings and got here in November, 1878, with his family. At that time there was no Uintah county. This was in Wasatch county. Mr. Abraham C. Hatch was the president of the Wasatch Stake. He was a brother of Jeremiah who was the father of A. A. Hatch, our consultant. (The very first settler of this territory, Pardon Dodds Sr., married the daughter of President A. C. Hatch.)

Mr. Hatch's own story: "When we came back from Heber he said he would show me some oats of Bill McKnight's, and when I saw those oats my eyes must have stood out of my head for I never in all my life saw such oats. I stayed at Pardon Dodd's for three or four days until Uncle Abe and Father (Jeremiah ) drove out. Uncle Abe came out on business. Pard ran a trading post and Uncle Abe furnished the goods. After Father came we got out enough logs to make the foundations for our houses. We made the return trip to Heber in forty hours. We returned about the last of May and built two houses quite close together, and they were the first houses built on the bench. The settlement that followed was first known as Jericho and then as Hatchtown in honor of Father. We hauled all of our supplies and furniture out before we did our families, and it was Nov. 17, 1878, that we were all established.
"In the spring of 1879 we put in our crops and the grasshoppers took practically all of them. They hit my crops first and then started on Dad's. All we were able to save was about 40 bushels of Dad's.
"I surveyed the lower canal. I and Jim Hendry (Henry) plowed it while the lower settlers used a V-shaped scraper (go-devil) to clean it out with.
"The first base meridian line was surveyed in the fall of '79. It was located one and one-half miles east of the Uintah State Bank.
"In the fall of '79, Mr. Hendry and I formed a partnership and threshed the grain on the bench with a hand-fed, horsepower driven machine. This machine was brought into the valley by Bill Bealer, the fall of ‘77, and was used by him to thresh on the creek until he broke the master wheel. Among those we threshed for were: I. J. Clark, Brad Bird, Jim Henry, Al Johnson, Bill Hayden and Albium Batty.
"In the year of ‘79 a number of the settlers raised sugar cane for the first time. Father and I cooked the cane for them. We made the cooker with a sheet iron bottom and wooden sides. When the molasses was cooked and drained we would leave some in the bottom and cook it hard to make candy, and did we have some candy pulls!
"The Meeker massacre happened on the 29th of September at Meeker's Agency, near where the town of Meeker, Colorado, now stands. The reports were at that time that Nathan C. Meeker, Indian agent, was unfair and stubborn in his dealing with the Indians and their annuities. The Indians lassoed and dragged him through the agency until he was almost dead: they then took him and drove oak staves through his body staking him to the ground and left him until he died. They forced his wife and daughter and all agency employees to watch this tortuous and inhuman action, after which they kidnapped the women and killed some of the agency employees.
"Reports were that Jane Powitz, daughter of Chief Aropeen, was the agitator and did all she could to urge the Indians on. She was a very handsome squaw and could talk the English language very fluently.

"My house was the last one rebuilt and was the only one with a wooden floor, commonly called puncheon floor, made by hewing logs square and placing them on the ground side by side.
"After we had built the fort we dug a well. We went down 20 feet and hit slate we dug a few feet in this and then gave up and haled water from the creek.
"All the dances were held at my house, being the only one with a floor. Old Pete Peterson was the fiddler and did we hoe it down. Mariah Merkley, Kate Peterson, Annie Ross and others danced us almost to death.
"George Merkley and I got out the logs for the first schoolhouse in Vernal. It was built inside the fort. I was the first school trustee appointed by Wasatch for Vernal.
"During the winter our supply of flour from Heber was about gone and we decided to build a burr mill. Roan Taylor cut the stone, Bill Reynolds cut the grooves and dressed them.
In the spring of '80, about April 15, Dave Woodruff and Jim Henry took four-horse outfits each and went to Green River City, Wyoming, for flour. Uncle Archie Hadlock had received $400 from the Government for the death of his son in the Civil War, and we settlers borrowed this money to pay for the supplies.
"My share was $100 and for security I mortgaged my new Peter Schuler wagon. T'was a very odd contract. Archie picked up the tongue of the wagon and raising it to the sky said: 'Know all things by these presents, this wagon is mine if this debt is not paid.' Lowering the tongue to the ground our bargain was made and sealed. I don't know the story of the other loans, but I do know he was paid back every cent plus interest."--A. Reed Morrill.


THE HARD WINTER
During the hard winter of 1879-80 the people of the Valley went through some of the most trying circumstances of their pioneer days. People actually went hungry and lived on daily rations. There were no vegetables at all and no fruit. There were deer but they were so poor that not a globule of grease would rise in the pot in which they were cooked. There was no way out or in for supplies. The cattle huddled under ledges or anywhere nature had provided a little shelter and there they perished. Several hundred head were lost this way. Whole herds perished until by spring they had dwindled to small numbers and mild was luxury of high order. So serious it became that some of the most valiant and brave men undertook the trip via Brow's Park over the mountain, up to Green River City, Wyoming, for flour and provisions. The team of Al Hatch was one of the first to be offered for service, and the men got together the best horses available under the circumstances of no feed, and started overt the rim of the northern mountains that cold day in the winter of 1879. Those who went from the fort were Jim Henry, Pete Peterson, Chell and Lee Hall, and Dave Woodruff.

All the money available was gotten together and sent with these men to purchase flour and supplied, and it is said that Grandfather Archibald Hadlock and Chell Hall added their government pensions to this amount collected to help provide provisions for the needy in the fort that winter. The money was later returned.

The winter of 1879 and 1880 was indeed a hard winter and several things occurred to make it hard. In the first place the snow was deep and the temperature dropped down, Perhaps it has been cold since that time, but there then no stacks of alfalfa hay to feed the cattle and help them resist the cold, penetrating frost then there were no trees nor structures for windbreaks over the bench there wee no barns nor shed for shelter, and consequently the cattle became thin and were swept away in large numbers by the cold persistent winter, Mr. Ike Burton, Mr. W. H. Clark, Mr. A. A. Hatch and others recall counting the dead cattle in large numbers where they had huddled together in an attempt to keep warm.

Besides this situation of natural consequence, the crops of the summer of 1879 had been greatly diminished by the grasshopper menace. They scourged the fields and left waste in their wake. Thus supplies were reduced to a greater extent. Mr. A. A. Hatch recalls having saved practically no grain from the "hoppers" that summer but was grateful for a crop of sugar cane from which he made molasses that fall.

Chell Hall and brother Lee left the next day after Jim Henry's company, but caught them on the way back as they camped on Green River. It was Chell Hall who got them out of bed and with much persuasion got them to go to work and cross the rived in the night, using shovels for paddles. The river was rising so fast he knew if they waited the stream could not be crossed for several days.

Coupled with these conditions and paralleling them in time was the Indian trouble which necessitated the constructing of a fort where the people could move in for protection. This trouble was a result of the Meeker Massacre. The Ute Indian leaders were on friendly terms with the Hatches and Uncle Jeremiah Hatch was told by the Indians to build a fort and "fort up" in case protection became a necessity. The feeling among the Utes ran high and it wasn't easy to determine what might happen. Uncle Jerry was informed not to allow opposition to be initiated among the settlers and "if trouble occurs" he was cautioned to hoist a white flag over the fort under which conditions he was promised protection for the settlers.
The fort was constructed where the J. C. Penney store and the Uintah State Bank now stand. Log cabins were to be placed about in a square, facing in, with a space between so that log buttresses could be put up for fighting purposes if necessary. However, it was not finished so it formed a U. Thus in the winter of 1879 and 1880 this community of fort houses -- sometimes jovially spoken of as "Jericho" and sometimes as "Hatchtown" because of the great influence of Uncle Jeremiah Hatch -- contained the families of Jeremiah Hatch, Sr., (Uncle Jerry had two wives), Al Hatch, Al Johnson, Jim Henry, I. J. Clark (who had three wives), Bradford Bird, Bill Reynolds, John Harper and mother, Dave Woodruff who married Jerry Hatch's daughter, Pete Peterson, J. Dorathy, Charles Bartlett, Moroni Taylor, Lomoni Taylor, Ephraim Perks, William Gagon, Thomas Karren, Archibald Hadlock and James Hacking, and one or two others. There may have been others coming in and out during the winter,.

In an attempt to supply the settlers with water, a well was dug in the center of the enclosure. They dug down sixty feet, but failed to strike the desirable objective and the project was abandoned. The closest available water was the streamlet which had been turned down a gulch which ran in a southeasterly direction about five-eighths of a mile below the fort that winter.

From there a beaten path was kept open in the process of securing water for the inhabitants of the fort that winter.

Not all the families moved within the fort and among those remaining on their ranches were Nelson Merkley, Sr., Joseph H. Black, T. Taylor, Alma Taylor, David Johnston, William Perry, J. Henderson and Belgina Reynolds. This of course does not account for all the settlers of the valley as there were various others scattered along the river and up toward Brush Creek. There were, in reality, three localities that winter: the one at the fort, Old Ashley Town, and the more scattered settlement on Green River.

Life in those early days was full of excitement, happiness, dullness and dreariness. It had its ups and downs as life ever does. There were many amusing and serious incidents which helped to make" life go" as Mrs. Clark put it.

When in the spring of 1880 the people of the fort were on their last rations, one day they saw winding back and forth across the foothills to their north and east, the returning wagons bringing flour from Green River City, Wyoming. Kate Merkley, at that time Kate Peterson, the daughter of Pete Peterson who was a member of the returning caravan, went with two other girls to meet the men returning home. The first words uttered by her father as she climbed upon his wagon were, "Katie, who has died?" to which Kate answered, "No one."

"Upon hearing my answer, Father cried and I couldn't understand why Father would shed tears when no one had died. But later in life," added Mrs. Merkley, "I could understand the meaning of his tears."
"When the men drove into the fort and unloaded the sacks of flour in the square, stacking them two by two crosswise of each other, I tell you that pile of sacks standing before us was the most beautiful sight we ever saw."

On their return from Wyoming where they had ferried across Green River, the men had camped for the evening when L. Henry -- noting the torrential appearing of the "spring rising" of the river -- against the wishes of some of the party, persisted in starting again and crossing the river that night. Happy they were for having done so, for by morning the spring floods had raised a wall of water several feet high and to cross that morning would have been extremely dangerous and difficult if at all possible.

"The advent of spring was very late that season and the farmers were unable to begin operations until the first week in April Steps looking to the organization of a new county were taken and early in the spring of 1880 Uintah County was organized.

"We were unable to give a complete list of families who were in the county that winter, but so far as we know at present they were as follows:

At Dry Fork -- Men with families, Thomas Bingham, Sr., Thomas Bingham Jr., William H Perry, Chell Hall, Lee Hall, Charles Nye, Orson Nye, Iowa Hall, and Fletcher Hammond.

"Ashley and Vicinity -- Pardon Dodds, Lycurgus Johnson, Alfred Johnson, William Gibson, James Gibson, G. W. Wan Gundy, Philip Stringham, Al Westover, L. Kabell, Roch Gill, Mr. Hawkins, Alma Taylor, T. Taylor, William Britt, John Bentley, Richard Veltman, Bill Hayden, Samuel Miller, Mrs. William Preece and family, S. P. Dillman, G. F. Britt, Minnie Jasperson, John Kelley, Enoch Davis, J. H. Blankenship, George Thorne, and Ed. Colton

"Vernal -- I. J. Clark, Jeremiah Hatch, A.A. Hatch, James Hacking, Nelson Merkley, J. H. Black, A. J. Johnston, David Johnson, Thomas Karren, Bradford Bird, Peter Peterson, Jesse Clark, Ephraim Perks, Levi Dougherty, William Ashton, George Freestone, W. H. Gagon, Lafayette Harris, Lomoni Taylor, Moroni Taylor, Mr. Henderson, C. C. Bartlett, John Harper, James B. Henry, David Woodruff, William Reynolds, Martin Oaks, Heber Timothy, George D. Christopher, Maria Merkley, A. G. Hadlock and Sarah Merkley Coltharp.

"At White River -- Samuel Campbell, Joseph Campbell, Heber Campbell, Jerome Merrill, Porter Merrill, and Rodney B. Remington.

"At the mouth of the Brush Creek on Green River -- Judge Burton and family, Charles Smith, Jacob Burns, Lars Jensen and Jack Stevens."

Mr. Dillman, who recalls that winter vividly, make the following remarks. At this time his headquarters were in Ashley and not in Hatchtown: "New settlers had arrived in the fall and had brought few provisions with them for they expected to purchase flour, sugar and the like in Ashley. But instead there were just that many more hungry mouths to feed. The settlers had all moved together, forming Ashley about one and a half miles west and two miles north of where Vernal stands today. There were still a few scattered squatters on the creek but most of the population had taken heed of the Indians who promised not to molest them if they lived together. A few of the squatters had raised some grain which was ground to a coarse, crude flour in a coffee grinder and shared with the settlers of the village. During the first winter months meat was plentiful. Deer, healthy and well-fed, were easily shot, but as winter wore on and the deep snow still covered all the feed, the deer began to decrease and those that were captured were poor. The horses and cattle began to die one by one for lack of food until there were very few left. One settler had a mule, another a poor horse, another a cow, but the fine, vigorous, hard-working teams of the summer were not to be seen in this winter-driven country. One day, Bill Reynolds, a former miller, who was homesteading in the valley, made a pair of great stone burrs for grinding the wheat and barley that were left in the community. A sweep was cleared and the stones were turned by man power for there were no horses left able to do the work. The flour thus made was nothing but chopped feed but those who couldn't eat it had to go hungry. 'If we could only hold out a few more weeks' was on the lips of every man and woman, and it was a glad day in March, 1880, when Jim Henry made ready to go to Green River City for flour…

"But now the dreadful winter was over the sun shone and the snow on the mountains was melting in torrents of water rushing down the ravines. Travel by wagon was resumed between Ashley and Green River City. Settlers were coming in from the west. Ground was being made ready for planting and whenever possible new cattle were hauled in. After the hunger, fear, and uncertainty of the last few months, the future again looked bright and everyone set to work again." --A. Reed Morrill.


AURILLA B. HADLOCK HATCH
She met Jeremiah Hatch in Vermont, while he was on a mission, in 1870. She accepted the gospel and with her parents came to Utah, coming to Salt Lake City on the train called Old Ironhorse. They married that same year in the old Endowment House. Moved to Smith Field. Came to Ashley Valley in 1879. She was president of the Relief Society and in 1886 or 1887, went to Salt Lake City and took training at the L. D.S. Hospital for nursing and midwifery. She returned home and worked hard for the people until two years before she died. She delivered hundreds of babies all over the country.

JEREMIAH HATCH
Born July 7, 1823, in Vermont
He and his sons, Alva Jeremiah Jr., and Leoranzo, were called by President Brigham Young to come here to Ashley Valley on a mission and teach the gospel to the Indians. They settled closed to the creek, close to the foothills. There was one hill they called the "Look-out-Rock," where they could climb to the top and watch for enemies, not only Indians, but there were outlaws to watch out for. They could see for miles. Large bands of Indians would come in the spring and fall with smaller crowds in between times. Father and is wives dug trees at Green River and planted a grove where we had many parties and wonderful time. He used to sell strawberries at 10 cents a quart, lovely large berries. He planted a large orchard below the grove. He also raised bees and we had lots of honey. He would go to Mr. Libberts and buy sorghum and made candy and popcorn balls. While our mother would card wool and spin, he would read from the Bible or Book of Mormon, then scoot us to bed. The Indians would come in large numbers and camp around his house under the large cottonwood trees. His wives, Arvill and Henrietta, would cook and feed them.

ARCHIBALD GILCHRIST HADLOCK
Born June 27, 1815, at Bath, New Hampshire. He married Feb. 25, 1839, in Jay, Vermont, Fannie Martha Hadlock, his cousin, who was born on August 29, 1814, at Bath, New Hampshire. They had nine children. After coming to Vernal, Mr. Hadlock worked with his sons Frank and Curtis as blacksmiths. He was very active in the church work, and was instrumental in obtaining flour for the settlers during the hard winter. He died in January 1898, and Mrs. Hadlock died Nov. 10, 1897.

ISRAEL JUSTICE CLARK
Born Dec. 25, 1821, at Danville, N. Y. Came to Utah in 1848 with John Smith Co. Married Emily Jane Pearson in 1853 at Salt Lake City. Indian War veteran. Missionary among the Indians. He died in September 1905.

EMILY JANE PEARSON
Born March 16, 1837, at Olive Indiana. Pioneer of 1847. Died in Vernal

MARY JANE HIATT
Born Dec. 21, 1842, in the state of Iowa. She came to Utah when she was twelve years of age. She married Teancum Taylor in 1859 at Mill Creek, Salt Lake City. She was the mother of fifteen children. Her son, Reuben Taylor, was the third white child born in Ashley Valley. He was born Sept. 11, 1878. She died in 1914 at Vernal.

HISTORY OF TEANCUM TAYLOR
Known as T. Taylor
Teancum Taylor, son of John Taylor and Eleanor Burkett, was born in Ray County, Missouri, Dec. 21, 1836. He came to Utah when he was about eighteen years of age. In 1859, he married Mary Jane Hiatt. He came to Ashley Valley Sept. 16, 1877, his family being the fourth white family to settle there. He was the first man to bring a load of pine logs into the valley, from what is now known as Taylor Mountain. The mountain was named for him. He was the first known person to enter Mt. Dell (Dry Fork), and lived there for a number of years. He died in November 1907.

CLARISSA JANE TAYLOR
Born July 4, 1845, in Nauvoo, Hancock county, Illinois. She came to Utah with her parents in 1850 when she was five years of age. She married Teancum Taylor on Aug. 15, 1860 at Ogden, Utah. She was the mother of fourteen children. She died Nov. 29, 1925, at Vernal.

ALVA A. HATCH
He was born in Salt Lake City in 1851. He married Mary Elizabeth Nelson. They had a large family and came to the valley in 1878. He was a farmer and sheepman.

(WILL) WILBUR CARLTON BRITT
Was born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, Sept. 22, 1849, a son of LeRoy and Rhod Britt. After the death of his first wife, Melissa Graves, he and his brother, Findley Britt, started out to find a new home. While in the Black Hills of South Dakota, they befriended a sick miner. He gave them a map of a gold mine on Carter Creek where the Carter Creek dugway is now. Early in the spring of 1876 they decided to go west and hunt for the hidden gold mine. In the evening before they left, they met a young man by the name of Peter Dillman who wanted to accompany them. The three came to Green River City, Wyoming, then over the mountains to Carter Creek, arriving in May, 1876, where they prospected until September when they came to Ashley Valley.
Before winter, they went to Whiterocks and spent the winter with Pardon Dodds. In the spring of 1877, Pardon Dodds, Peter Dillman, W. C. Britt and Findlay returned to Ashley, built cabins and prepared to make homes.
W. C. Britt built a store which housed the first postoffice. He was the first Justice of the Peace, and the first school teacher. On Nov. 2, 1881, his two daughters, Lillian (Mrs. W. P. White) and Gertrude, aged six and nine, came from Hillsdale, Iowa, and joined their father.

HISTORY OF GEORGE FREESTONE AND JENNY LIND FREESTONE
George Freestone, son of Thomas Freestone and Ann Fall, was born August 13, 1838, on Prince Edward Isle. He came to America when he was slightly under two years of age. In1858, he with his parents, came across the plains to Utah, from the state of Ohio. He married Alice Carlisle in 1861, she died in 1868. On August 12, 1872, he married Jenny Lind, daughter of Jens Christian Lind and Mary Ann Nielsen. She was born in Aalborg, Jutland, Denmark, on March 26t, 1855. She came to Utah with her parents in 1868. In 1879 they came, with their three children, to Ashley valley by mule team. They built the first frame house. (It is still standing today.) Their's was the first farm that was fenced. They planted the first nursery of fruit and shade trees and supplied the settlers for several years.
Mr. Freestone was the first Bishop of the Vernal ward in Uintah stake, which position he held for eleven years. Mrs. Freestone was treasurer of the Relief Society in Vernal ward. She was a charter member of the D. U. P. She was an unselfish worker among the sick and needy ever lending a helping hand in time of sickness or sorrow.

CHARLES CLAYMORE BARTLETT
Born Dec. 26, 1848, in Ohio. Married Annie Katherine Jensen Sept. 12, 1868 in the Salt Lake Endowment House. Moved to Ashley in 1879. They spent the "hard winter of 1879" in the Fort to be safe from Indian attacks. He was first county clerk and active in educational, civic, industrial and religious affairs. He died Feb. 12, 1916.

ANNIE KATHERINE JENSEN BARTLETT
Born November 9, 1844, in Denmark. Converted to the Church May 23, 1863. Arrived in St Lake Oct. 19, 1866. In 1880 she was chosen to be first Relief Society president. Was doctor and nurse for many years in the county. She was primary president for nine years and matron in the Academy for fourteen years. She died Jan. 5, 1937.

WARREN PIERCE WHITE
Was born in Millville, Wisconsin, Jan. 30, 1860 and came to Ft. Duchesne in 1888 to work as a carpenter on the building at the Fort. He married Lillian Britt Aug. 12, 1890. To this couple were born twelve children. Mr. White has been very active in the community and made many friends while following his carpenter trade.

WILLIAM GIBSON
Born in Killmornock, Scotland, April 25, 1845 of Scotch Irish parentage. He emigrated to America with his parents in 1852 on a sailing vessel called "Gull in the Air, " and was three months making the journey. They moved to Ashley Valley in 1877 and settled in Ashley ward. He was appointed Uintah County's first constable preceding the first election. He was elected to the first State Legislature in 1936 While acting as State Representative he conceived the idea to paint "Remember the Maine" on the face of a high cliff in Ashley Canyon which is still visible on the face of a 500-foot cliff.
He was the father of three children: J. L. Gibson, Mrs. N. G. Sowards and Sarah A. Eccles.
He died Dec. 11, 1932, and is buried at the Gibson private cemetery.

Mary A. Gibson was born in Salt Lake City Sept. l11, 1851, the daughter of John and Adeleg Grosbeck Lambert. She moved with her parents to Kamas Valley in 1861. She married William Gibson in 1872 in the Endowment House at Salt Lake City. Moved to Ashley Valle in 1877, was a Sunday School Teacher in Old Ashley in 1880, was elected trustee for District No. 3, in 1904. She served four years. In 1915, she was chosen president of the newly organized Ashley Ward Relief Society in 1915, in which capacity she served for several years. She died Jan. 19, 1935 and is buried in the Gibson private cemetery.

ELIZABETH REBECCA BLANKENSHIP
Born in Snyderville, Utah, Feb. 24, 1858, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Johnstun, She came to Vernal in 1879. He father was killed in a sawmill accident. Later, her mother married J. A. Black. In 1879 she was married to John W. Blankenship.

JOHN B. BLANKENSHIP
Born May 22, 1834 at Columbus, Indiana. When about sixteen years of age, some of his neighbors were emigrating to Iowa. The lure of the west called the boy and he went with them wintering near Des Moines. In1869, Mr. Blankenship came to Uintah Basin on a scouting expedition looking after cattle rustlers, coming as far as the White river. Later he stopped at the Indian agency at Whiterocks where he worked for the government four years later. On Feb. 12, 1875, he rode into the beautiful Ashley Valley in company with Morris Evans, two days ahead of Parson Dodds, Sr. He located permanently in Ashley Valley, and was the first white settler to locate on Ashley Creek. In 1879, he married Miss Elizabeth Johnstun, who had come her the year previous. Six children were born to them.

LYUCURGUS JOHNSON
Lycurgus Johnson was born in Washington, Texas, August 25, 1844. He came with his widowed mother to Idaho in Rich County in 1846. After several years they moved to Spring Creek, Wyoming, in 1876, from there to Ashley Valley October 15, 1878. Located in Old Ashley Town. There he became the second postmaster of the Valley. Also was elected the first sheriff. Built the second flour mill in the Valley in 1885. Was a member of the Constitutional Convention in Salt Lake City in 1896. He was a representative of Uintah county for two terms. He was appointed a member of the Continental congress from Utah to Texas in 1884. He was one of the early merchants of the valley. He was a member of the High Council for many years. Died June 29, 1908.

CORA ISABEL JOHNSON
Cora Isabel Johnson was born Oct. 25, 1847, in Bolton, Warren County, New York. During childhood she moved with her parents to Council Bluffs, Iowa. Her parents moved to Salt Lake City when she was thirteen years old. After six years there they moved to Idaho, where she married Lycurgus Johnson, March 1, 1867. She moved with her husband and family to Ashley Valley. Lived in Ashley Town nine years. For eight years she acted as postmistress, then moved to Maeser or Millward for twenty years. From there to Vernal City, where she assisted in the store of L. Johnson and Sons, where the Uintah State Bank now stands. She was a faithful church worker in the Sunday School. Was Stake President of the Y. L. M. I. A. for several years. She was the mother of eleven children. Died Feb. 10, 1926.

MR. AND MRS. HENRY C. RUPLE
Early Pioneers of Ashley Valley
Henry C. Ruple was born in Hunterdon county, New Jersey, Aug. 27, 1846. May C. Ruple was born Sept. 25, 1858 in Sugarhouse ward, Salt Lake City, Utah. They were married in Evanston, Wyoming, in 1873 and came to Ashley Valley in 1877.
In 1881, Mr. Ruple began operating the Government sawmill which was located at Government Park in the vicinity of Taylor Mountain. He sawed lumber for the construction of Fort Thornburg which was established by the U. S. Army in December, 1881. During the following year Mr. Ruple operated the grist mill owned by Kerg Johnson. In the late summer of 1883 the Ruples moved to Island Park where they homesteaded. They remained there until1910. A few years later the Island ranch was taken over by their son, Henry H. (Hod, who operated it until his death in 1937. The ensuing years between 1910 and Mr. Ruple's death in 1930 were spent in operating sawmills and in ranching on Brush Creek north of Vernal.
There were eight children born to this union. Mrs. Ruple, at 89, still enjoys good health.

SAMUEL ROBERTS BENNION
A son of John and Esther Wainwright Bennion. Was born Nov. 10, 1842, at Nauvoo, Ill., the oldest of seventeen children. Crossed the plains with John W. Taylor company, arriving at Salt Lake City Oct. l5, 1847. Married Mary Panter in September, 1866. To them were born nine children. IN August, 1879, he married Agnes Thompson. To them were born five children. He was a missionary to St. Louis, Ill., 1866-67 and to England 1883-85. Came to Vernal Sept. 24, 1886. Was president and helped in organizing the Ashley Co-Op, Vernal Mill & Livestock Co., Uintah Creamery, Bank of Vernal, Vernal Mill & Light Co,. Uintah State Bank, Telephone Co. Was president of Uintah stake for 20 years and patriarch until his death, Nov. 16, 1915.

AGNES THOMPSON BENNION
Born Nov. 2, 1857, at Salt Lake City, Utah. Married S. R. Bennion Aug. 10, 1879. Came to Vernal in 1886. Mother of five children. Active in Relief Society work. Died March 4, 1928.

MRS. MINNIE JESPERSON DAVIS
Born in Gestrwp, Denmark, July 12, 1866. Came to America when eight years old with her parents who were converts of the L. D. S. Church. She came to Ashley Valley at the age of thirteen. Went to the home of Pardon Dodds. Married John N. Davis, 1893. In Manti Temple and lived in Vernal until her death, March 1944. She was interested in church work of all kinds. Served in the Mutual for ten years and in the Relief Society for 28 years. She was an active member in the Republican party and served as a state committeewoman.

JOHN NIGHTENGAL DAVIS
Born Oct. 19, 1864 in Salt Lake City, Utah. He came to Vernal when a young man to worked in the sheep-raising business, and gradually worked into the wool-growing business for himself. He married Minnie Jasperson from Heber City, Utah on February 1, 1893. In 1895-97 he filled a mission for the L. D. S. Church in the Northern States. Later, he filled another mission to the Southern States. He served as bishop in the Vernal First ward from 1898 until the reorganization of the stake in 1910, when he went into the High Council and served in that capacity during two administrations. He was patriarch of Uintah State at the time of his death. He was prominent in civic and political affairs. He served in the State Legislature from 1906-1910, and during this service, secured the funds with which the bridge over Green River was erected. He served as a City Councilman, Juvenile Judge and the manager of the horse division in the State Fair. Mr. and Mrs. Davis were the parents of ten children, six sons and four daughters.

THE MERLEY FAMILY
The Nelson Merkley, Sr., family moved into Ashley Valley in 1878. They came from Cedar Valley and drove their cattle over the old road up Daniels Creek.
When in 1879 (the Hard Winter) the families of Ashley moved together into the fort (often called Jericho because of Uncle Jerry Hatch), the Merkley family stayed out on their place. At this time the territory had not been surveyed and when it was finally done, it was found that the early settlers had calculated sections lines fairly accurately and were not off more than one-fourth of a mile. To get correctly situated with the survey they simply squared their claims over so that each holding would fit into its proper position with the surveyed lines.
One of the all important jobs was to take water from the river for their farms. Mr. Merkley, with others of the early settlers, would labor hard all day with improvised implements, to procure water.
With heavy slabs fastened together, with two handles attached, they were able to etch out a furrow in which to take out the water. Nelson Merkley Sr., was born Nov. 11, 1828 at Williamsburg, Ontario, Canada. He married Sarah Jane Sander and had the following children: Nelson Merkley, Jr., Sarah Jane, George D., Charlie, John, Henry, Bessie, Christopher, Rachel, Jacob.

WILLLIAM PORTER COLTHORP
Was born in Monroe County, Tenn., in 1860. Came to Ashley Valley in 1880. Here he established himself in the mercantile business and sheep industry. He was one of the organizers of the Bank of Vernal. He married Sarah Jane Merkley who was born Aug. 24, 1891, Salt Lake City and came to the Valley in 1879.

NELSON MERKLEY, JR.
Born March 24, 1857. Died April 18, 1924. Mr. Merkley was known throughout the community as the most outstanding farmer and thoroughbred stock raiser. His farm was free from weed, had good fences, and he raised huge crops that were sold to the soldiers. He was progressive and community minded and served as High Councilman and Patriarch in the Church. He married Keturah Peterson, the daughter of Peter Peterson. She was born in October, 1867, in Kentucky, and came to Ashley Valley Oct. 24, 1879. They were married in June, 1884. She served as president of the Vernal Relied Society and helped both in the church and community. They built the first brick house, and had six children.

CORA A. HARDY TEMPLETON
Born at St. Charles, Idaho, Oct. 17, 1869. Came to Ashley Valley in November, 1878. Was active in Sunday School and Mutual. Married William Templeton Feb. 25, 1889 and moved to Maybelle, Colorado.

JOSEPH HARDY, SR.
Joseph Hardy was born in Council Bluffs, Iowa April 8, 1848. Son of Joseph Hardy, Sr., and Lucy Blandon. Left St. Charles, Idaho, in November, 1877, for Ashley Valley with his wife, Lydia R. Davis, whom he married in Salt Lake City, October 2, 1869. One daughter, Cora and three sons, Joseph H., Nathan C., and Charles A. Hardy, and three other families, Lycurges Johnson, Alfred Johnson and Allen Davis. They married in the Ashley Valley Nov. 3, 1878. They had provisions to more than last a year, but in those days everyone shared with the other. There was only one white woman here, Mrs. Rolf Snyder and her hired girl, Clara Crouse.
The men worked on the mountains that winter in their shirt sleeves, getting out logs to build their houses, which they completed before fall of 1879, which proved to be the hard winter. There were lots of new people coming in and they were unprepared for the cold and deep snow.

MRS. LYDIA REBEKA DAVIS HARDY
Lydia R. Hardy was born Aug. 15, 1850, at Boltan, Warren County, New York. Daughter of Nathan C. Davis and Isabella Wells. She crossed the plains as a child in the company called the Clendfendent Train. They arrived in Salt Lake City Aug. 15, 1860. She was ten years old. She married Joseph Hardy Oct. 3, 1869, in the Salt Lake Endowment House and came to Ashley Valley Nov.3, 1878. Was very active in different church organizations. She taught school in the early days, although she was the mother of ten children. When death came to this isolated valley, Mrs. Hardy was often called upon to make burial clothes and line and trim the coffins. A picture and sketch of Mrs. Hardy's life was published in 1940 in the "Women of Deseret," a historical pamphlet of her civic activities. Joseph Hardy, Sr., died Oct. 12, 1931.

CORA VAN GUNDY
Born in 1867 in Golden, Colo., she came to Ashley Valley with her father, George W. Van Gundy, in 1878. There were few white settlers in the Valley at that time. They all went through many hardships of the first pioneers. During the winter of 1878, the dreaded diphtheria epidemic struck the Valley. Every family lost one or more members one family lost six. There was neither doctor nor medicine of any kind. Cora, one of the first victims, recovered somehow. She was then able to go about caring for the small children and aiding the mothers in their arduous duties.
George Van Gundy was a cabinet maker by trade. One of his first tasks was to make the needed caskets. When the lumber available in wagon beds was used up, he resorted to using handsawed lumber from logs. The women ripped their clothing for material to line the caskets. Cora, always deft with the needle, was busy sewing and making these linings. The next spring, known as the "hard spring," found the Valley snowed in. The settlers were always hungry and some days they had nothing to eat. They all divided their food and ground their seed wheat in the coffee mill, to keep alive. To add to their hunger, was the fear of Indians. The warriors went to and from Colorado, as this was the time of the Meeker Massacre.

JOHN McANDREWS
Born in Madison, Indiana in 1855. Came to Ouray, Utah, in 1883. He was with the Department of the Interior in the capacity of Chief Herder of Indian cattle. He remained in the Indian Service twenty years. He and Cora Van Gundy were married in 1897. Both of their lives were full of adventure and hardships. Truly they helped settle the Great West!

MARY FRANCES BROWN AND JAMES BARNUM HENRY
James Barnum Henry was born June 30, 1852 in Oakland County, Michigan. He was the son of Calvin William Henry and Rhoda Priscilla Barnum. When he was two years old, he came with his parents to Utah, traveling all the way by ox team. His early childhood days were spent in the canyons and towns surrounding Salt Lake Valley. His family later settled in Heber.
Mary Frances Brown was born April 9, 1857 at South Cottonwood (now Murray), Utah. She was the daughter of Jonathan Brown and Sarah Cousins Brown who came from England to America in 1850. She lived in South Cottonwood until her marriage. Mary was introduced to James Barnum Henry by Ammon Reynolds, a mutual friend, about 1877. They were married in Salt Lake City on July 24, 1878.
At the October General Conference 1878 of the L. D. S. Church, the young couple was asked, together with a few others, to go to Ashley Valley to help make a permanent settlement. Although the valley to which they had been called was far from civilized settlements, was little known, and the road over which they must travel to reach it was scarcely more than a trail, they responded to their call. They placed all their food, clothing and furniture into one covered wagon and began the journey in October. The company was about three weeks on the way, first sighting the Ashley Valley on Nov. 9, 1878 - a very dreary time of year. Ashley Valley looked very barren to the Henrys. At that time there were only a few little log cabins in the valley. Mary thought of the Salt Lake Valley, with its fast-growing population, its silver streams, trees and shrubbery and wondered if the valley they were entering would ever be anything but a desert.
That fall the people of Ashley built a fort near the center of what was then called Ashley Bench, near where the Commercial Hotel now stands. They did this because they had been frightened by the Meeker Massacre. Most of the inhabitants spent the winter in the fort, but were not molested by the Indians.
The Henry's first home in Ashley Valley was a low log cabin with a dirt floor in one-half of it and a rough board floor in the other. The next spring their first child, James Calvin, was born.
Jim planted what seed he had left over after the winter and was able to harvest some grain and potatoes. Other settlers also raised fairly good crops, but the wheat was "smutty" and there wasn't any surplus. However, that fall of 1879 brought many new settlers, some with meager supplies and some with none.
The winter of 1879-80 became known as "the hard winter" in after-years, because snow fell early and deep and the people didn't have enough food stored to supply their needs until spring broke. Most of the cattle either died of starvation or were killed for meat, although their flesh was too lean to even make good soup. When it looked as though the whole colony must perish from starvation, a few of the stalwart men of the valley volunteered to cross the mountains on snowshoes to Green River City, Wyoming, to get flour for the starving people. James Henry was one of the first to volunteer his services. These men crossed Green River on the ice and made that perilous journey to the Wyoming city and risked their lives to bring back flour to the people of Ashley Valley. As soon as the snow was sufficiently melted, the Henrys opened their potato pit. The neighbors flocked there as to a big celebration. The children, who hadn't tasted any vegetables for months, begged for "just one potato." Kind Mr. Henry passed them around and the half-starved youngsters didn't even wait to wash the soil off, but gobbled their potatoes down, skin and all. In those days potato skins were never wasted, but were boiled to make liquid for starch or mixing bread.

Mr. Henry helped dig irrigation ditches and canals to bring water from the creeks to the dry farm lands of the valley. He helped make roads to the timber in the mountains. He was always fond of camping out and spent most of his life working with his horses, timbering, freighting, and hauling coal. They had many interesting and exciting experiences with the Indians in those early pioneer days.

Mary Henry held many responsible positions in the L. D. S. church, being a member of Uintah Stake Relief Society Board for many years. She wrote many beautiful poems and tributes, several of which have honorary place in Daughters of Utah Pioneers" records. They had the following children: James Calvin, Sarah Priscilla, Albert Monroe, Emma Mae, Frances Mary, Lauretta, Merrill, Bertha.
James Henry died Dec. 13, 1932. Mary Henry died Sept. 17, 1944.

SAMIAL JONES ROLFE
Samial Jones Rolfe was born Oct. 15, 1867, at Lehi, Utah. He came to Utah with the first settlers when they had to ford up from the Indians. Was a butcher. He died Nov. 25, 1928.

HYRUM OSCAR CRANDALL
Born April 26, 1844, in Sherden, Hondcock county. Ran the first mail route to the basin. One station at Myton and one at Ft. Duschesne. He later moved to Driggs, Idaho. Was chosen bishop of the Duggs ward. Died there in May, 1904.

EDWIN GEORGE WEEKS
Born at Danville, Vermont on Oct. 6, 1833. Married Elizabeth Jane Hadlock on March 24, 1861 She was born in Lisbon, New York April 2, 1844. They came to Vernal to be with her parents. Mr. and Mrs. Hadlock, and Mr. Weeks worked as a wheelwright in the Hadlock blacksmith shop. They had seven children and were interested in church work.

WINFIELD SCOT HULLINGER
Was born Jan. 5, 1848, in Ohio, as son of Harvey Coe and Julia Bloc Hullinger. Came to Ashley Valley in 1883. Married Annel Davis Nov. 22, 1869, in Salt Lake City.

JOHN E. CLARK
Married Thedosia Hatch, a daughter of Jeremia Hatch. They came to Ashley Valley in 1879 and filed on 160 acres of land across from the John Readers place. They have lived in Uintah Basin ever since. He always had a sheep or goat herd. He is the son of I. J. Clark. They moved to Blue Bell on a farm there. She was the only midwife there for a long time. Has delivered lots of babies.

JOHN S. HACKING
Born June 23, 1867 at Cedar Fort Utah. Came to Ashley Valley in 1894. He has been one of the loyal and public-spirited citizens of Uintah county, specialized in sheep-raising. Married Mary E. Hall, born March 19, 1874. Born in Beaver, Utah. Died, 1934, in Vernal, Utah.

HARVEY COE HULLINGER
Harvey Coe Hullinger, who spent many of the 100 years of his life in giving relief to the sick, was one of Uintah Basin's first faithful practicing physicians. He merited the respect and esteem of many hundreds of is patients and acquaintances of the Basin, both Indians and Whites. His was a happy life because of the service he rendered. The Vernal Express of Oct. 16, 1925, carried these headlines: Harvey Coe Hulllinger of Vernal, Oldest Practicing Physician in United States.
Dr. Hullinger was born on Dec. 2, 1824. He came to Utah in 1859 and was the recorder of Big Cottonwood district for some time. In 1883 he moved to Uintah County. He arrived there in October and purchased 160 acres near Jensen, Utah. On Dec. 7, he moved his family out. His nearest neighbors lived about one-half mile away. They were Jesse McCarrell and John D. Mecham.
Mr. Hullinger became a doctor in 1852 by self-determination. He began his practice of medicine in 1852 and practiced until 1925.

Three days after his arrival in his new home in Jensen, he was called to go twenty miles to attend the son of Frank Moore, a saloon keeper of Ashley Fork. From then on until his death he was faithful in his care of the sick. He was the first real doctor of the Basin.

From 1883 until 1888 crops were meager and scarce. Dr. Hullinger was kept busy with his practice and so his two sons, Adelbert and Winfield, looked after the Hullinger farm. Dr. Hullinger traveled long distances in the saddle and received mostly produce for pay. He went as far as sixty-five miles and stayed with patients until they recuperated. He was gone from home for two weeks at a time. Before 1887 he acted as his own nurse. He procured the services of a nurse, however, in 1887. He always kept records in a very methodical way and one finds that in the first two years he received only $40 in cash. From 1883 until 1922 Dr. Hulllinger ushered over 1,000 children into the world or into the Uintah Basin.

Dr. Hullinger was called in 1885 to attend Chief Wash, Ute chief, who lived near the Green River below Jensen. The chief was suffering with pneumonia, but with the aid of an interpreter, with forty-eight hours of care and medicine, the patient recovered. The news spread and Dr. Hullinger was known as "Chief Medicine Man" from then on.
Dr. Hullinger remained steadfast to his profession and by his willingness, skill and sincerity, was indispensable to the earl settlers of the 1880's, 1890's and the first two decades of 1900's.

STERLING DRIGGS COLTON andNANCY A. COLTON
They came to Ashley Valley with four children, Flora E., S. Leroy, Don B. and F. Edwin, in November of 1879.
Sterling Driggs Colton was born in Provo, Utah, March 22, 1851 Nancy A. Wilkins Colton was born in Provo, Utah, July 14, 1853. They both came from parents who joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints during its early days in the vicinity of Rochester, New York, and migrated to Nauvoo, then Utah with the early pioneers.
Mr. Colton came to Ashley Valley with his brother, Edwin Colton, the young member of the Mormon Battalion, in July of 1879, and Mr. Colton decided to homestead in the valley. He returned to Provo to get his family and property. When he returned he came with six teams and outfits and trailed 250 head of cattle into Ashley Valley.
The first member of the family, Flora E. Colton Collett, was born in Provo, Utah. S. Leroy, Don B. and F. Edwin were born at Mona, Juab county, Utah. Their other children, Warren A., Charles H, Lewis L., Nancy Fern, Zora M. and Hugh W., were all born in Ashley Valley on the old Colton homestead in the northern section of Maeser ward.
Mr. Colton was the first sheriff of Uintah county after its organization in 1881 and served 15 years. He was bishop of Maeser ward for 1 years and mayor of Vernal City for years during which time the Vernal City water system was extended up Ashley Canyon beyond the junction of Dry Fork and Ashley Creek. He performed a mission for the L. D. S. church in the Northern States Mission in 1895.
He was engaged in various businesses. He homesteaded in what is known as Maeser ward where he spent most of his life operating a farm and livestock, sheep, cattle and horses. He was also one of the first operators of a mercantile institution in Ashley Valley and was one of the original directors and organizers of the Uintah State Bank.
Mrs. Colton was widely known throughout Uintah county and was associated with many ladies' organizations. She served as president of the Young Ladies M. I. A. and Relief Society of Uintah Stake for several years.
Their family was educated in the public schools of Uintah County and the various institutions of higher learning throughout Utah and other states.

LUCIUS HUNTINGTON WOODARD
Lucius Huntington Woodard, son of Oscar Daniel Woodard and Caroline Huntington, was born at Richmond, Quebec, Canada, June 5, 1876. He came to Meeker just after the Meeker Masacre and for several years lived as a cow puncher in Colorado.
He came down into Jensen, Utah in 1892 and traded for cattle for Mr. Aland of Meeker. March of 1893, he married Helen Aurelia Dudly in Jensen, Utah. July 1st he took the contract for mail between Vernal and Rangely, Colorado, and had the contract for four years. In 1897 he moved his family, wife and two small daughters, to Aurey and the Indian trading post for five years. He moved to Vernal in 1903 and bought a home. He soon went into the furniture business and bought the Davis Furniture store. He then bought Social Hall. On Jan. 3, 1926, he married Mary Ethelda Dudley.

EDWARD JONES YOUNG
Born Oct. 2, 1859, at Grantsville, Utah

ESTHER DUNSTER YOUNG
Born April 24, 1861 in Salt Lake City, Utah. They were married in the Endowment House in Salt Lake City, Utah, Nov. 27, 1879. They raised eight children. Mr. Young entered the sheep business in 1886, trailing several herds through Wyoming to the Uintah range over Taylor Mountain with his brothers, LeGrand, Tera, George, and Charles S. Carten, Sr., brother-in-law. In the fall of 1887 he went back to Salt Lake City and brought his wife and three children to Vernal to make their home. He was in the sheep business and farming. Mrs. Young was First Councilor in the Y. L. M. I. A., Sept. 2, 1894. Died March 18, 1907.
Mr. Young married Maud M. Hodgkin in the L. D. S. Temple Sept. 16, 1908. They had two children. In 1920 they moved to Murray, Utah and made their home. On April 21, 1931, his second wife died. He spent his later years at the home of his eldest daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Erickson. He passed away June 29, 1945.

NATHAN C. DAVIS
Born Aug. 29, 1816 at Bolton, N. Y. Married Isabella Wells Nov. 16, 1840. Converted to the church at Nauvoo, crossed the plains and stayed at Winter Quarters two years to care for church property there. Later he was sent to Nebraska to build a ferry boat and ferried the Saints across the Platte River three years. Was a body guard to Joseph Smith. Came with the Independence Train to Salt Lake Aug. 15, 1860. Came to Ashley Valley in 1880. Brought a large number of cattle and horses with him and there is a place on Taylor Mountain called Davis Hollow where he had a cabin built to accommodate his riders. Active in stake and ward, also business and civic affairs.

SIMON PETER DILLMAN
Was born July 1, 1854, in a maple syrup camp near Bloomington, Indiana. His parents were Andrew Dillman and Eliza Frances Henderson. When two years of age, he with his family moved to southern Iowa and took up a farm near Chariton, on the Chariton river, where the Mormon Trail was then being used, and where one of the stopover farms of the Mormons was located in their trek westward. His ancestry were strongly religious, and biblical names characterize many generations. For generations they had followed agriculture. They were patriotic, and one of his ancestors was one of the special bodyguard to Gen. George Washington. He was especially commissioned to serve the warrant of arrest upon Aaron Burr, following the duel with Alexander Hamilton.
Mr. Dillman came west when 21, and was one of the first settlers in the Ashley Valley, coming in the summer of 1877. He was employed for a short time by the Government and went to secure the release of the "white women" following the Meeker Massacre. He was one of the two teachers who conducted the first school in the Valley. He was a pioneer in fruit culture here. Honest and dependable as an officer and citizen he was a leader in law observance and law enforcement. His hobbies were hunting and camping. He was for many years game warden. He was the first Forest Ranger in the Uintah Basin. He started the first drug store in the building now use used by Vernal Bakery.
Mr. Dillman married Julia Ellen Davis, to which union four children were born. He first settled on the site where Fort Thornburg was located, and during the "hard winter" carried the mail on skiis, from Old Ashley to Brown's Park, when hunger stalked the valley, and livestock were too weak to be used. Mr. Dillman died August 1, 1939.

JULIA ELLEN DAVIS DILLMAN
Was born Feb. 7, 1862, in Salt Lake City, Utah, daughter of Nathan Cutler Davis and Isabella Wells. Her parents were at Nauvoo, prior to the expulsion of the Saints, and later, with their family, moved to Florence, near Council Bluffs. Mr. Davis was a master mechanic, and was assigned by President Young to remain at Council Bluffs for a number of years, repairing and making equipment for emigrants who crossed the plains in the many companies. With his family, he moved to Salt Lake, and was assigned to assist in the construction of mills for the Saints.
Mrs. Dillman, as a child, moved to Bear Lake with her parents, and later to the Ashley Valley, where she met and married S. P. Dillman in 1882. To them were born four children.
Mrs. Dillman possessed a strong religious conviction and loved things beautiful. She did some painting and composed many poems. She operated a millinery store for many years. As a hobby she each day resolved to do some unusual thing for the comfort or making happy some person, and with her horse and buggy traversed the valley, day or night taking relief, sending flowers, administering kindness to those sick or unfortunate. Her life represented a deep sense of social justice and devotion and an appreciation of the strength and blessigs of the Church, exemplified through service and faith. She died on Oct. 28, 1904 from an illness contracted while nursing the son of a friend afflicted with typhoid fever. Her memory is held in loving remembrance by those who knew her.

JEREMIAH HATCH MURRAY
Born April 2, 1878 at Spanish Fork, Utah. A son of Jeremiah Sr., and Mary A. Murray. Came to Ashley Valley in 1885. Married Pearl Karren. Born Nov. 23, 1879 died March 2, 1900. Married Rachel Ellen Merkley. Born Sept. 2, 1882. Daughter of Nelson Sr., and Sarah Jane Merkley. Died April 13, 1918.

PONTHA CALDER
Born Aug. 3, 1879 in Mill Creek ward, Salt Lake County, Utah. His father was George Calder, his mother was Mary Bennion Calder. He helped his father build the Calder Park, the first Pioneer pleasure resort in Utah it was later called Wandamere, and is now known as Nibley Park. In the year 1900 Pontha Calder brought his wife, Rosella Soffe Calder, to Vernal to make their home. She taught school and he and his brother Hyrum built an ice pond and furnished ice for the town of Vernal. He has been superintendent of the stake for twelve years. Managed the Imperial and was bishop of Vernal First ward for twelve years. He is now Vernal's postmaster.

ROSELLA SOFFE CALDER
Born Aug. 6, 1880, in South Jordan, Salt Lake county, Utah. Her father was N. George Soffe, her mother was Mary Jacobs. Was married Sept. 12, 1900. They have nine children. In 1901 Mrs. Calder started the Ice Cream business in Vernal with a six-quart freezer, furnishing the Mease Drug Store. The business grew so fast, the Colpin Drug wanted ice cream, too, so was born the Calder Brothers Ice Cream Company. Later, she took a beauty course and passed the first state examination. She then established and operated the Calder Beauty Parlor for twenty years.

DON B. COLTON
Born in September, 1876 in Mona, Juab county, Utah. A son of S. D., and Nancy Colton, he came to Ashley Valley in 1878. He filled a mission to Great Britain, 1896-98. Acted as principal of the Uintah Stake Academy for two years. Was in the State Legislature in 1902. Graduated from the University of Michigan in 1905, served for nine years as Receiver of the U. S. Land Office, was elected to the State Senate in 1914 for two sessions. Elected to Congress in 1920 and served twelve years. In the Uintah State he served as High Councilman, Counselor to William Smart, and for eleven years as State President, in which capacity he made unnumbered friends. Mr. and Mrs. Colton moved into Salt Lake City in 1933. He was soon called to serve as President for the Eastern States Mission. In 1933-37 he returned home to become the president of the Missionary Home. Nearly 7,000 missionaries have gone through the home up to 1947. He is a member of the Deseret Sunday School Union Board. Mr. Colton married Maisie Hall, daughter of Mary Bingham and Mark Hall, Sr., who lived but a short time. On June 17, 1908, he married Grace Stringham, and they have five children.

GRACE STRINGHAM COLTON
Born Aug. 26, 1878. Daughter of Phillip and Carolline Crouse Stringham. Mrs. Colton taught school for six years and was president of the YLMIA in Maeser ward. She taught school for six years, was president of the Relief Society in Washington, D. C., when it was organized there. Presided over the Relief Society in the Eastern States Mission field, as well as being mission mother. Is now on the Ensign State Relief Society Board and interested in other church activities.

JOHN FAIRCHILD, WIFE AND FAMILY
Reached Ashley Valley Oct. 17, 1877, with a family by the name of Downing. Mr. Fairchild had just 35 cents in money when he arrived in the valley. Cap. Pardon Dodds was building a new store. He gave Mr. Fairchild a job and his wife was given the position of cook for Capt. Dodds' hired men. The next spring, Mr. Fairchild traded 300 poles to Pat Lynch for a homestead right and moved him family to this homestead.
Willliam Gibson, his wife and two children, James and Mary (Maidie), lived on the adjoining homestead which was owned by Mr. Thorne.
Cora and Lillie Fairchild became very close friends and playmates with James and Maidie Gibson. On the Fairchild place was a grove of trees where the people of the Valley gathered to celebrate the 4th of July that year. Perhaps because pleasures were so few and far between in those days, everyone enjoyed that simple picnic, although many of the children were barefoot and with patched, faded clothing. Allen and Matilda Davis and their family also became good friends of the Fairchild family.

MR. AND MRS. E. G. DeFRIEZ
Mr. and Mrs. E. G. DeFriez and family came from St. George, Utah, to the Ashley Valley in the early fall of 1884. Mr. DeFriez taught school that winter in a log, one-room school-house where the Commercial Hotel now stands. Later on, he was superintendent of schools one term, visited the schools in the valley, Dry Fork and Pensen on horseback. He was Probate Judge following Mr. Burton's term. He was tithing office clerk in the small, rock house north of Penney's Store for several years. He also worked in the Co-Op. Store at that time. He studied law and practice as an attorney as long as his health would permit. Ebenezer Godfrey DeFriez was born Dec. 7, 1851, in Longon, England. Died Oct. 8, 1837, at Huntington, Utah. Sarah Elizabeth McCullough DeFriez (his wife), was born May 26, 1861 in Washington, Utah. Died Nov. 23, 1927, at Huntington, Utah. They were the parents of thirteen children, six boys and seven girls.

ELLEN WILKSHIRE
Born in Worcestershire, England, April 2, 1844. Married William Jasper Rolfe in 1861. On his death she married Thomas Karren in 1876. Came to Ashley Valley in 1879. Served as Relief Society president of the Vernal Ward for twelve years.

MR. STEINAKER
Mr. Steinaker and his son Johnnie came into Ashley Valley from Colorado in 1877 and in the account of Peter Dillman's life as given by Reed Morrell, we find the following:
Mr. Dillman got work from Mr. Dodds digging potatoes, cutting posts and getting out poles. In the latter job, Johnnie Steinder worked with him. Mr. Dodds went with them to show them where to get the poles. It was during this operation that the old cabin, known as the "Old Dodd's Cabin" was built on the mountain. But when spring came, they were anxious to get on land and Pete cut and hauled poles and fenced in a good part of his homestead but he had no team, no plough and no money, so there was little he could do in the way of farming and it was the same with John Steinaker. They put their heads together, those two, and got a whipsaw. Lumber was in great demand and now it was accessible, people were beginning to put floors in their cabins and fix up a little. Pete and John went back into the timber and got out smooth, flat boards with their saw. They could get out about 150 feet a day, which didn't nearly supply the demand that came to them. This firm of Dillman & Steinaker sawed the first weatherboarding that was used on a house in Vernal. They became known as good hard workers and many of the new settlers who kept coming in all during the spring, summer and autumn of "78" came to them for a set of logs for a home and lumber for doors, windows and floors.
Dillman and Steinaker lived in the log cabin they had built for Pardon Dodds up in the timber the summer and fall of 1878, operating their whipsaw until the logs froze.
The winter of "78" and 79 passed slowly. There was nothing much to do. Johnnie Steinaker, Dillman and the two Britt boys lived together in the cabin they had built on the Britt homestead.

JOSEPH P. McCARREL
Joseph P. McCarrel was a native of American Fork, Utah, born on May 5, 1854, son of Jesse and Amanda McCarrel. In 1883 he, accompanied by his wife and two children, came to Uintah county, locating on Ashley creek and engaging in farming and livestock raising. In later years, he acquired the farm southeast of Vernal, on which he resided until his death. He is survived by his wife and five sons.

MRS. AMANDA McCARRELL
Mrs. Amanda McCarrell, wife of Jesse H. McCarrell, pioneers of 1881, settled on a homestead on Ashley creek in what was the Riverdale ward, now Jensen. She was one of the well known pioneers of this section. She was a counselor in the Relief Society in the Riverdale ward for years, serving under Mrs. Heber Orser. She was born in Canada, Sept. 2, 1828, and when 17 years of age, her parents, David and Catherine Woods, and herself were baptized in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. She and her husband came to Ashley Valle from Midway. She married Jesse H. McCarrell in October 1847, and they had twelve children. She died Feb. 8, 1923.

MRS. JANE CLIFT McCARRELL
Born in Provo, Utah, Jan. 19, 1853, a daughter of George Washington and Amanda June Fancett Clift. She was married to Jesse D. McCarrell. In 1882, with her husband, a small family, she moved to Ashley Valley over extremely rough roads. With the exception of two years spent in Big Horn, Wyo., she has lived in Vernal ever since. She relates numerous incidents connected with the encounters with Indians and the famous robbers' rendezvous in eastern Utah.

THOMAS CLIFTON BLACKBURN
On Dec. 31, 1878, he married Isabel Stoddard. Mr. and Mrs. Blackburn came to Vernal in 1898 and settled at Dry Fork where he engaged in cattle raising and farming. He died in November, 1931.

JOHN W. GALLOWAY
Mr. Galloway was born Jan. 15, 1864, at Kamas, Utah, the son of Charles and Ann Cutler Galloway. He married in 1885, Katherine Hunter and in 1895, Annie Elizabeth Bowden. Mr. Galloway was the first marshal of Vernal, coming here in 1883 from Kamas. He moved to Roosevelt in 1906. He was active in church and civic affairs.

GENEVIEVE ODEKIRK MOWREY
Born Sept. l23, 1873. Came to Ashley Valley in 1883 with her father, John Odekirk. They came by way of Evanston, Wyo., over the Mountain. At the time Ft. Thornburg was being built. They lived at the Nathan Davis place in Old Ashley Town. She married Uriah Mourey March 27, 1890, a son of Hurley Mourey. He came to Ashley Valley with his parents in 1883. He and his brothers helped to move Ft. Thornburg to Fort Duchesne. Homesteaded on the Reservation. Have lived in both Tridell and Lapoint. Have four boys.

MR. AND MRS. FRANK WATKINS
Mr. Watkins was born at Midway on Dec. 21, 1873, a son of John and Harriet Steele Watkins. He came to Utah in 1856 with a handcart company. The couple was married at Vernal on March 10, 1897 by Bishop James Shaffer in a double wedding with Ernest Eaton and Susan McKowen. Mr. and Mrs. Watkins have lived their entire life in Vernal with the exception of eight years when they resided in Sunnyside, in Carbon county. Mr. Watkins has always been a butcher and farmer. Mrs. Watkins was born Isabel McKowen on June 6, 1875, at Clifton, Pa., a daughter of Phillip and Mary Hughes McKowen. She came to Vernal in 1882.

SARAH THOMAS
Born at Pueblo, Colo., enroute to Utah in 1847. Died March 4, 1937. The last surviving member of 1847.

BELL HATCH WOODRUFF
Married David Woodruff. They built the white frame house by the Feltch cabins. Then they moved to Big Horn Basin, Wy., in 1893.

ERNEST EATON
Born Jan. 12, 1875, son of Joseph and Victorine E. Walker Eaton. Married Susana McKowen in Vernal, Utah when 22 years old. Filled a mission to Canada from 1906 to 1908. Held many positions in the church. Married Pearl Larson on the death of Susana in 1917. Spent 23 years in the Stake Presidency. Died in 1939.

THOMAS LYONS
Came to Ashley Valley in 1883 with Wilson and Frank Boan. They brought with them a band of horses from the Steptoe Valley in Nevada, and Mr. Lyons took up a little place on Little Brush Creek, now knows as the Goodman place. After about two years he went to Island Park where he lived with the Ruples until his death in 1910. Mr. Lyons was born in Erie Co., Pennsylvania, in 1820.

WILSON BOAN
Wilson Boan located on Big Brush Creek and his brother Frank went to Fort Duchesne.

JOSEPH E. RICH
Son of Colonizer of Bear Lake section of Idaho and Ashley Valley. Lived in valley for nearly a half century. Married Elouisa Hatch, daughter of Uncle Alva and his wife, Mary.

JOHN AND KATHERINE FAIRCHILD
Arrived in Ashley Valley in 1877 about the same time as Henry C. Ruple. It is believed they were born in Ohio. Mr. Fairchild was born about 1830, his wife a few years later. From Colorado they went to Ogden, Utah, before coming to the Ashley Valley. They were almost as well known for the team of mules (Nip and Tuck), which they drove, as they were for their own kindness and generosity in people of the community.

ANNIE BATES WOOLEY
An active church worker. President of Second Ward Relief Society ten years. Died 22, 1937.

E. C. HADLOCK
Was born Nov. 6, 1855. On Nov. l24, 1879 he married Edith Hobbs in Logan. He, with others of the family, came to the valley in 1879-80.

MARY S. WILSON COLTON
Born March 29, 1860 at Provo, Utah. Came to Ashley Valley in 1880. Married John Albert Colton at Provo in 1880.

PETER PETERSON
Born Feb. 11, 1847 in Denmark. Came to Utah in 1862. In November, 1879, he brought his family to Ashley Valley. Was first fiddler in the Valle and played and called for many dances. Was first Sunday School superintendent in the Fourth ward (Glines.) Managed and directed the first plays presented in the Valley in Jake Workman's Hall. Died May 14, 1910 at Hayden, Utah.

MARY ELIZABETH THURMAN PETERSON
Born at Nashville, Kentucky in 1847. Married Peter Peterson. Died May 1, 1912.

ALLEN W. DAVIS
Born at Bolton, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1841. Came to Utah with his parents in 1860. Married Matilda A. Robinson in February, 1867. Celebrated his golden wedding anniversary in Calders Hall, now known as the Commercial Hotel, in 1917. Died May 7, 1923.

WILLIAM NEWTON
Mr. Newton was born at American Fork, Utah on October 31, 1877. His mother was left a widow with three small children. At the age of six, while assisting her to move into Cedar City, he was thrown under the wagon and seriously injured, his eyesight was completely lost. At the age of eleven the lad enrolled in public school and by listening attentively he gained considerable knowledge.
In 1897 the State School for the Blind was opened at Ogden and he was one of the first to enter. He remained there until 1905. He learned the Braille system and the trade of boot and shoe maker in June of that year. He graduated and came to Vernal to open his shoe shop.
He and his brother Isaac brought the first up-to-date shoe repairing machinery to Vernal in 1908. It grew into a harness and saddle shop and in 1930 they started making saddle chinchas, the stirrup department was added and in 1934 the saddle trees were made. They invented nearly all of the machinery used in the manufacture of their products.
Mr. Newton was a familiar sight on the streets of Vernal. Even though he lived in darkness he was not afraid to venture forth and as he was able to cross streets with unerring accuracy, a white cane was presented to him by the District Council of the Boy Scouts of America. He died in Vernal on Dec. 9, 1939.

ROBERT POPE
Born in London June 16, 1828, settling at Farmington, Davis county. While living in Farmington, Robert Pope, with Milton D. Hammond, went to California and helped bring the first threshing machine that came from California to Utah. He, with his wife, Sarah LeDuc, born July 21, 1835 at Saints Cessire, Montreal District, Canada came to Ashley Valley in 1883.
Mrs. Pope, through practical experience and studying, became recognized as the leading nurse in Uintah Basin. She died Dec. 13, 1918.

DAVID HARRIS WORKMAN
Born Feb. 28, 1848, at Mt. Pisga, Iowa, a son of Jacob Lindsay and Fanny Harrie Workman. He came with his parents to Virgin City, Utah. Married Emma Jane Reynolds in Heber, Utah. Was a guard in the Black Hawk war. Came to Ashley Valley in 1883 with his wife and eight children. Was a farmer and operator of supply wagon to White Rocks Indian Agency and Ft. Duchesne.

EMMA JANE REYNOLDS WORKMAN
Born Dec. l7, 1847 in New York, daughter of Melissa Bardwell and William Pitt Reynolds. She came to Utah in 1853.

CHARLES B. ATWOOD, SR.
Born in 1844. Married Louisa Brown who was born in 1845. Came to Vernal in 1887. He made the first brick in Vernal, the brick in the Wm. Ashton, S. R. Bennion, S. M. Brownie, J. C. Penney Store. The brick was made on the Philip Stringham and W. H. Siddoway place.

MR. AND MRS. BARNABUS L. ADAMS
Mr. and Mrs. Barnabus L. Adams came from Salt Lake City in 1885. Settled in Dry Fork. Were the parents of six children. Mr. Adams died in 1888. Mrs. Adams raised the family and took an active part in church affairs. She died in 1910.

J. WILLIAM WORKMAN
Came to Ashley Valley with his parents, David H. and Emma Jane Reynolds, in June 1883 in his tenth year. Was an Indian interpreter, also a farmer and stock raiser. On a mission to New Zealand he was designated British Scout by the New Zealand High Commission for his part in the Coronation ceremonies at the time Edward VII was made King of England in 1902.

ELSIE DEAN WORKMAN
Born in Parleys Park, Summit Co., Utah, April 6, 1881, a daughter of Wm. Ovey and Elsie Erickson Anderson. Married J. Wm Workman June 6, 1906 in Salt Lake Temple. In 1908, July 26, they homesteaded at Hayden, she helping to clear and burn the sagebrush while their two babies played on a blanket spread on the ground in the field. In 1917 they moved to Vernal and settled in Vernal First ward. Mrs. Workman became a counselor in the Relief Society. In 191 she became president of the First ward Relief Society. Was later chosen as Stake Work Director in Relief Society, March, 1927. Released in 1943.

JOHN W. POPE
Born Aug. 2, 1881 at Garden City, Utah. He came to Vernal in 1883. Married Nellie Beers on March 18, 1901, at Vernal. Was father of five children. Played in the Adams Band for ten years. In 1905 he went to Denver, bought an automobile, shipped it to Mack, Colo., by train, by express from Mack to Dragon, and then drove it from there to Vernal. It was the first car in Vernal and quite a curiosity. He carried passengers to celebrations for fifty cents round trip. Was in the garage business for 22 years. After the death of his first wife, he married LeVern Peterson of Roosevelt, July 25, 1933. He died Sept. 2, 1943.

OTTO PETERSON
Born Oct. 11, 1857, in Norway. Died Feb. 7, 1935, in Salt Lake City. He came to Ashley Valley in company with Wm. G. B. Reynolds. He was Mrs. Reynolds' brother. Helped to open the coal mine now operated as the Pack Allen mine. Married Christena Johnson. They were the parents of four children, the oldest of whom, John Otto, was killed in World War I. Other children are Agnes Myrtle, Raymond Earl and Niels Burk.

ED JASPERSON
Came to Ashley Valley on Nov. 22, 1882. He says: "My sister Minnie accompanied me. I went to school to Pete Dillman. That winter the school house stood at the west end of town in Old Ashley. I worked in this country for several years and experienced many thrills here as a boy".

PETER E. HANSEN
Peter E. Hansen was born in Salt Lake City March 7, 1862, son of Peter E. Hansen and Augusta Lund. Perer Hansen came to Vernal in 1885. He married Nellie Glines Oct. 14, 1885 in the Logan Temple. They have one son and two daughters. Mr. Hansen was later admitted to the bar, then elected County Attorney. He served as Registrar of the Land Office from 1914 until his death in 1920. Was an outstanding musician and played the violin in the old Salt Lake Theatre before coming to Vernal.
Albert B. Atwood was the photographer in Vernal. His place of business was where the old central school building is now, he later sold that and built the place where Leo Thorne now operates.

DAVID JOHNSTON
Left Scotland in 1873. Came to Ashley Valley in 1878. At one time he owned all the land on which the present city of Vernal now stands. Died in December of 1928.

LYNNE ASHTON
Was born Sept. 19, 1873, at Pleasant Grove, Utah, a son of William Ashton and Ellen Elizabeth Croxford. He joined the L. D. S. Church in June, 1887. In 1878, his father, in company with six other men, left Pleasant Grove for Ashley Valley (later known as Vernal) to look over the situation with intention of making homes there. In the spring of 1879, Lynne's father and older brother, Leslie, returned to the Ashley Valley and planted grain on the land which they had taken up the year before.
In 1880 William Ashton brought his family to Ashton Valley to make their home. They settled on the property which has remained in the Ashton family ever since, now owned by Mrs. Stanley Ashton. He was married to Annie Evans in 1897. To this union was born one daughter, Nellie Annie. His wife Annie died in 1899 and in 1906 he married Clara Elizabeth Marshall. To his second marriage was born a daughter, Ethelynne. His second wife died in June 1939.
Lynn has always been active in public life, always found working in the interests of Vernal and Ashley Valley. He served four years as Uintah County Commissioner, from 1918 to 1922. He served three successive terms as county clerk, 1907 to 1914. In 1940 he was elected to the Utah State Legislature as senator and served from 1940 to 1944.

WILLIAM STANLEY ASHTON
William Stanley Ashton, son of William Ashton and Ellen Elizabeth Croxford, was born May 29, 1871, in Pleasant Grove, Utah. On Nov. 3, 1879, he went to Vernal, Utah with his father and spent the winter.
Mr. Ashton married Elizabeth Odekirk May 29, 1895, at Vernal.
Mr. Ashley began his career in the mercantile business with the Ashley Co-op and served that institution as a buyer for more than 21 years. He resigned from the Ashley Co-op and devoted his time to farming and stockraising. In 1933 he served in the Utah State Legislature as representative from Uintah county. He died July 4, 1933.

ALFRED HARVEY WESTOVER
Born in Vermont, May 8, 1851. His father was Moses Westover and mother, Mary Ann Oliver. His mother died when he was five years old and his grandparents raised him until he was thirteen years old, when he started west. The first stop was New York City. From there he came west to Chicago. He went up on the train with Custer to the Black Hills, where Custer was killed. When he was twenty-three (in 1874) he, with Jimmie Rineman, drove a herd of cattle for the Government to Ashley Valley. The cattle were for the Indian Agency. They crossed Green River at the old Indian Fort Escalante crossing. They then went back for more cattle and on June 10, 1874 he again returned to make his permanent home settling on what was later the old Ira Burton place. He met Miss Clair Josephine Crouch from Salt Lake territory. She had come out here with Mr. and Mrs. Robert Snyder. On the 23rd day of September, 1877, in Salk Lake, he and Miss Crouch were married. They came back to Ashley Fork as it was then called, to make their home.
On Sept. 15, 1878, a son, Alfred Clair, was born. He was the second white child born in the valley, and is still living there. His mother died a few days after his birth.
In the winter of 1877, he made a trip to Rock Springs, Wyoming, with a cart made from the back wheels of a wagon, for flour for the settlers who were out of food. He carried mail over the mountain between here and Rock Springs on snowshoes. For this service he was paid 25 cents a letter. On one of these trips he was snowblinded. Mr. Westover was one of the first trustees of Union ward, being in office when the schoolhouse was built. He and Heber Campbell, Billie Powell, Harry Yarnell, Louis Kabell, and Ben Heater built the old Spring Creek ditch, also the Whitewash Canal. The Rock Point was later built and these two canals were put into it. He was one of the first directors of the Rock Point.
On Dec. 31, 1881, in Ashley Fork, he was married to Jennie Elizabeth Allen. To this union six children were born. He died March 4, 1922, in Vernal.

JENNIE ELIZABETH ALLEN WESTOVER
Was born Aug. 31, 1865 at Beaver City, Utah. She came to Ashley Valley with her parents on Nov. 16, 1879. She was a Relief Society worker and helped care for the sick. On March 17, 1901, she married James William Beddo.

EDWARD DAVID SAMUELS
Edward David Samuels was born July 21, 1861 at Salt Lake City. Was married about 1884 to Clara Fisher. Came to Ashley Valley in 1893. Located first on Highway 40, southeast of Vernal. Moved to Vernal City to what is now Dr. Franke's place in 1908. Moved sheep interests from Utah to Colorado in 1921. Died Jan. 30, 1925.

ORSON B. CALDER
Orson Bennion Calder was born Jan. 8, 1862 in a log cabin in Taylorsville, Utah. After spending many happy years in his childhood home, he married Catherine Snedaker on July 28, 1886, in the Logan Temple. She was the daughter of John Fredrick Snedaker and Elizabeth Rock, pioneers of 1847, and was born Feb. 8, 1863. She was a wonderful woman, well educated, with a strong character and beautiful personality and had many other qualities that fitted her life's work.
There were very few musicians in Ashley Valley in those days, so his musical training proved very beneficial, not only in the ward but all over the stake. At entertainments, dances, conferences, wherever he was needed, he was always willing and ready to go. After living in Ashley Valley for a number of years, they decided to take their family and go back to Salt Lake City. In about the year 1920, he suffered a great loss in the death of his beloved wife and companion. At the time of her illness, their daughter Catherine was filling a mission in California. Mrs. Calde was loved and respected by all who knew her, and held many prominent positions in the stake and ward. She was a Gold Star mother.

ALFRED SUMMERS JOHNSON
Pioneer of Ashley Valley, Mr. Johnson was born in Montpelier, Idaho, in 1859, the son of Uncle Alfred and Aunt Deborah Elizabeth Johnson. They moved to Ashley Valley in 1878, being the fifth family to settle here. In 182 he married LaVina Taylor, daughter of T. Taylor, the fourth family to come to the valley.

HIRAM BENNION CALDER
Born May 26, 1873, at Salt Lake City, Married Nellie Hampton, born April 18, 1874. They are the parents of six children. Came to Vernal in June of 1900. Have both been very active in business, as will as church activities. They were the first to establish the Calder Creamery many ears ago, which has been a great benefit to the people here. They have also done much for the L. D. S. church here, Mr. Calder being state president from 1931 to 1943. Also bishop of Vernal First ward, Sept. 18, 1910 to 1927.
Mrs. Calder has been active in the stake and ward. Was stake Relied Society president and president of the Y. W. M. I. A., Primary president of First ward, and other activities.
The community owes much to such people as these, they have done much for the growth of Vernal.

KATHERINE GILLMAN
Daughter of Philip and Mary McKowen, born Aug. 8, 1870 at Lackawana county, Pennsylvania. In October, 1883 they came to Uintah county, Utah. When she was fifteen years old her mother died and located in what was called Merrell's ward. , and she and her sister Mary were left the responsibility of caring for the family. There were four smaller children whom they mothered the rest of their lives. She married William Gillman Nov. 22, 1887. They had ten children. Joined the Mormon church in 1890. She was active in the Relief Society. She acted as nurse or midwife when many a baby was brought into this world. During the influenza epidemic of 1918 she spent days in people's home's caring for their sick. Died Oct. 7, 1926.

WILLIAM TAPSCOTT GILLMAN
Son of James Henry and Alice Wickham Gillman, born May 15, 1860 on the ship Tapscott on the Atlantic Ocean. His mother crossed the plains and carried him most of the way. When he was 25 years old he came to Ashley Valley. He homesteaded a home three miles south of the Tabernacle. He taught school several years. Most of his life was spent in the sawmill business. Married Katherine McKowen Nov. 22, 1887. Died Feb. 12, 1927, at his home in Vernal, Utah.

THEODOCIA HATCH CLARK
Born March 10, 1863. Has been nurse among the sick all her life. Wife of John E. Clark. Daughter of Jerry Hatch.

CHARLES CAULSON RICH
Son of Charles Rich and Jane Susana Stock. Born July 26, 1866 in Paris, Idaho.

THEODOCIA CLARK RICH
Daughter of John Clark and Theodocia Hatch. Born June 13, 1882. Wife of John Clark and Theodocia Hatch. Born June 13, 1882. Wife of Charles Caulson Rich.

WILLIAM COOK
William Cook was born in Sheffield, England, July 24, 1845. When ten years of age he, with his mother and the other children, were baptized into the L. D. S. Church. In the summer of 1863 the family came to America, leaving his father in England. He reached Utah in the early fall. He married Ellen Wealty Dec. 24, 1865 in the Endowment House. He worked as a carpenter and studied to become an architect and builder. After the death of Ellen Wealty, he married Mary Horrocks Taylor in 1878. He worked on the Salt Lake Temple, the Assembly Hall and built the Amelia Palace. Heber C. Kilmball gave him a piano for building his house. It was the second piano to be brought to Utah and the first to Uintah county.
On July 17, 1879 he married Lydia Hartle in Salt Lake. He came to Vernal in the fall of 1893, bringing his best machinery with him. Because it had taken all his money to move to Vernal the first winter was one of great hardship. He helped build the Tabernacle and when it was finished in 1907 he was made custodian. He died May 11, 1920.

ROBERT JOHNSTON
Born Sept. 17, 1866 in Scotland. Came to America in 1873 and to Ashley Valley June 4, 1878. Drove stage and mail from Dragon to Vernal for many years.

WILLIAM H. SIDDOWAY
Born Oct. 9, 1860 in Salt Lake City. Married Emily J. Dunster Oct. 1, 1890. Came to Vernal in 1890. Managed a sawmill on Taylor Mountain in early days. Manager of Vernal Mill and Livestock Co. when completed in 1893. President and general manager of Vernal Milling and Light Co. in 1906. Was county commissioner for twelve years. High Councilor from 1902 to 1923. Helped to promote and organize the Bank of Vernal, Uintah Abstract Col, Vogue Theatre, Uintah Co. Creamery, Uintah Tel. Co., and the Uintah State Bank. At present is president of the Uintah State Bank.

MR. AND MRS. JOHN G. DAVIS
Were early pioneers of Uintah Co., coming from Spanish Fork, Utah in 1887. Settled on a farm north of Vernal. Parents of nine children. Mr. Davis was a civic worker and did much to develop the county, having served as county commissioner for many years. Supervised the building of the Courthouse. He died Sept. 11, 1921. Mrs. Davis was a faithful Latter-day Saint and Relied Society worker. She died in May, 1927.

MR. AND MRS. GEORGE E. ADAMS
"Mother Adams," affectionately called by her hundreds of friends and child admirers because of her philanthropic philosophy of life, is as a familiar landmark to the residents of the Uintah Basin, as the Dinosaur Monument is to the nation.
The little lady in the white sailor cap has had a most generous spirit in giving and helping those in need. Her great love and understanding of the out-of-doors and the wild and wooly west, has thrilled many a child to be included in her "picnic kid" parties. And what parties! Other children have been happy to be numbered in her 1 to 50 free circus ticket holders. Besides being so very good to the children of the community, she has helped older boys and girls through school, aided war veterans in different business fields and the many, many letters and gifts she has sent to the soldier boys, will long be remembered by them.
Kate Forrest Adams was born in Westmoreland county of Virginia, Feb. 25, 1867, the same county that George Washington was born in. She had a twin brother who died at the age of 11.
George E. Adams was born Sept. 20, 1861, in Cohn county, Illinois, but was raised in Vermont.
Mrs. Adams met George E. Adams in Washington, D. C., and was married Sept. 20, 1887, in the Ephiny Episcopal church. There was one child, Ellsworth Forrest Adams, was born to them.
Mr. Adams was in the meteorological service of the Signal Corps. He was ordered to Utah in 1887 and established the service in Indian Canyon in Duchesne county. Mr. and Mrs. Adams spent almost a year there, and "Mother Adams" says she loved it. In 1888, they were moved to Fort Duchesne and stayed there until 1890. In 1890 they moved to Vernal. While here, Mrs. Adams was engaged in the mercantile, ranching, and banking business. Mr. George E. Adams died at Vernal, Jan. 15, 1944.
"Mother Adams" has loved the ruggedness of the wild west and the outlaws, and although she has traveled extensively throughout the United States, Europe and Africa, she loved to come back to Vernal. She is now planning a trip to Europe to visit the different battlefronts of the last war, and to visit places of interest.

JOSEPH HOWARD
Was born in England in 1849, drove two yoke of oxen across the plains in 1863. His father and mother were in a company ahead. As he neared Salt Lake, at a place called Bitter Creek Station, he noticed a fresh grave. On arriving in Salt Lake his father told him that was his mother's. He came to Vernal in 1883 and brought his family in 1885. He engaged in carpentry and built many of the homes in the valley.

JOHN GLENN
For 37 years, Vernal and Ashley Valley have been familiar with John Glenn. He was highly respected by all, a man with a keen memory, liberal in his views, honest and upright. It is said of him that he knew every section of the entire country. He came here from Heber City in 1866 the year the soldiers were first stationed at Fort Duchesne. He first taught school in Merrell's ward, now Naples, and also his young wife, in Union ward. He next entered the mercantile business, hotel business, survey and abstracting, and was interested in several irrigation projects. He was also interested in various land enterprises. He came to the valley in 1886.

HERBERT TYZACK
Realtor, abstractor, businessman. He settled in Vernal in 1890 as stockman and farmer. His wife Mary Jane Garrick Tyzack, died in 1904. Surviving are three sons and two daughters.
Upon the opening of the Uintah Indian reservation in 1905, Mr. Tyzack spent several years locating people on places which they had drawn by lottery, and handling contests in the Land office. At this time Ed. F. Harmston owned an abstract in Vernal. Charles Carter, Sr., and others, purchased this abstracting business and organized the Uintah Abstract Co., selecting Mr. Tyzack as manager and secretary. During 1907, Mr. Tyzack was one of the organizers of the Vernal Milling and Light Co. He has been secretary of the Ashley Central Irrigation for the past 25 years and one of the directors and largest stockholders of Vernal Investment & Amusement Co.

WILLLIAM WITBACK
Born Nov. 24, 1861, at Springville, Utah. Died in Vernal Nov. 9, 1927. Came to Uintah county in the early part of 1883. Had four boys. Married Theora Erekson Witbeck in 1890. She died in January, 1905. In 1907 he married Elizabeth B. Shimmin Witbeck, mother of three children. She was born March 4, 1867 and died in January, 1945.

EDWIN JOSEPH WINDER
Born June 8, 1867. Came to Uintah county in 1900 to teach school. Married Ada Calder in Salt Lake Temple in 1898. Served in the bishopric of First ward 22 years.

ADA CALDER
Born May 25, 1871. Active in Mutual, Sunday School and Relied Society. Mother of seven children. Died in 1945.

ALMA JAMES JOHNSTUN
Born July23, 1853, in Big Cottonwood, Salt Lake. Married Lauretta Henry May 30, 1875, in the Endowment House. Called as home missionary to settle Ashley Valley April 6, 1878. Homesteaded where Tabernacle, old academy and stake office now stand. Owner of "Old Red Plainer." With I. J. Clark, he plowed a ditch from Ashley Canyon to irrigate their gardens. Ditch is now known as Ashley Central Cana. Had 12 children.

ENOCH SPENCER GURR
Born at Wallsburg, Utah, Nov. 17, 1866. His parents were James and Margaret Gurr. He was married on April 6, 1885 at Salina, Utah. Mr. Gurr came to Vernal 46 years ago from Sevier county. He was engaged in freighting between Vernal and Price for a number of years. After moving to Vernal he freighted for a gilsonite company between Vernal and Price. When the railroad was built to Dragon, Mr. Gurr and family moved to Dragon and then later they lived at Kennedy Station for a few years. Mr. Gurr was employed as superintendent of the Vernal-Watson road and was also foreman of other sections of the road. He assisted in filing on most of the gilsonite and oil shale claims in Uintah county. He died in June, 1934.

JOHN C. BATES
Born July 8, 1865 at Middlesex, England. Came to Utah, then moved to Uintah county in 1886. He married Janette E. Perry. Devoted all his time to raising sheep. Two knolls located between Bitter Creek and Willow Creek were named after him. He had charge of dipping and shearing plants of Uintah County Sheep Assn. for many years. Was city and county commissioner and justice of the peace. Associated with Uintah Drug Co. until 1925. Lives in San Diego at present.
He was director of the Thoroughbred Sheep Co. for many years. Mr. Bates helped build up the Telephone Company, Uintah State Bank, Vernal Milling and Light Col, being a director of that company. He served both the city and county for four years as councilman, county commissioner and justice of the peace. He sold his sheep and became associated with the Uintah Drug Co., until 1925 when he moved to San Diego, Calif., He is active in the Church Welfare program and is now a High Priest. Mr. and Mrs. Bates had six children.

JANETTE PERRY BATES
Born Jan. 21, 1868 in Lynne, Weber Co., Utah. Daughter of Alonzo O. and Jeanette S. Perry. With her parents, she came to Vernal in 1891 five of he six children were born in Naples ward. She was active in church work, being president of the Y. L. M. I. A. in Naples, a counselor to Nellie Calder in the first Y. L. M. I. A. in Vernal First ward: president of Vernal Primary, and a stake officer. She was a charter member of the American Legion Auxiliary. In San Diego, she has been counselor to two presidents of the Relief Society.

ALMA JAMES AND LAURETTA HENRY JOHNSTUN
Mr. Johnstun was born July 23, 1853 in Big Cottonwood, Salt Lake Co., Utah. Mrs. Johnstun was a daughter of Calvin Wm. Henry and Rhoda Persilla Barnum. She was born April 25, 1855, at South Cottonwood ward, Salt Lake county. They were married May 30, 1875.
When but a baby, her parents separated, her father taking Lauretta's only brother, James B., to live with him. In a few years her mother married Simpson David Huffaker. On May 31, 1875, when they were married, Mr. Johnstun worked in the sawmill and was very successful there. He understood the work and the machinery and knew how to select trees to make the best lumber. He also was a miner and helped to locate some of the richest mines in the vicinity of Park City. His mother was much opposed to the sawmill business inasmuch as her own husband had lost his life in a sawmill.
Considerable talk came to their ears of the Ashley Fork, it being rumored that such was an excellent place to range cattle in winter. Alma decided to bring their cattle to Ashley Valley. They hired Joe Worlman to help them drive the cattle over into the Valley. Joe stayed to herd the cattle during the winter and Alma and Robert returned to their families.
In the spring of 1878, Mrs.Johnstuns's husband and her brother, James B. Henry, decided to leave Parley's Park and go to Arizona or New Mexico to live. She did not want them to go, as she had a fear of them crossing the Colorado river. They insisted on going. The farther south they traveled, the more discouraged they became. At Fillmore they turned around and came home. She was not surprised tosee the, as her constant prayer had been for their return and her prayer was answered. They arrived in Salt Lake City in time for April Conference, and at that conference President John Taylor called Alma Johnstun, James Henry and Grandpa Black, with their families, to come to Ashley Valley to help colonize.
In three weeks they had all their possessions packed in their wagon and were ready to leave for Ashley Valley. The company consisted of Grandpa Black with his wife and her daughter, Elizabeth, Johnstun, a Scotchman by the name of Davey Johnston (father of Bob Johnson who now lives in Vernal), his wife and five children. Mrs. Black was Alma Johnstun's mother and for a number of years she had been an invalid. This rough trip was very hard on her, it being necessary at times to rest over for a day or two so she would b e able to continue the journey. Sister Black did not live long after coming to the valley and was the first person buried in the Vernal cemetery. Such terrible roads as they had to travel, in many places they were just trails down the steep mountainsides. The men would walk by the sides of the wagons and hold them from tipping over. They would carry their babies and climb the mountains, clinging to the brush in order to keep their footing. They came over the old Blue fording all the streams, and through the old Dodd bench, across Nigger Heave, down Current Hill, Twist, entering the gap west of the Valley June 5, 1878. Most of the residents were living down on the Creek but this party of people located on what was then called the Bench. It was just one block north and east of the present Uintah High School. The first thing the men did was to go into the mountains to get logs for their houses. The Alma Johnstun home was the first one built and was located just across the street east from the present high school. On July 1st, they moved into a neat log house with a dirt roof and a dirt floor. The floor was made smooth by pouring scalding water on it and then patting it down firmly. On Sept. 2nd, a little girl was born to the Johnstun's. She was the first child born on the bench, and the first girl in Ashley Valley. She was named Emma Lauretta. When this baby was just two weeks old, Al Westover sent a boy to ask if Mrs. Johnstun could care for his small boy whose mother had died. Mrs. Davey Johnstun said in her Scotch way, "Na, na, it will kill you." Mrs. Johnstun said "I shall die then and for a good cause." She kept the baby for three months and two days, then Philip Stringham and wife (Mrs. Westover was a sister of Mrs. Stringham) came to get the child and Mrs. Johnstun did not see him again until he was sixteen years of age, and then not again until in the year 1933.
The first summer in the Ashley Valley, the pioneers made gardens, and did all they could to prepare for the winter. The Johnstun's had a few potatoes and a little corn. In the fall they bought some sugar beets from Mr. Downey and Mrs. Johnstun, remembering how her mother had made beets into syrup, boiled these down, thus making their winter's supply of syrup. In the spring of 1879 they rented a place from Mr. Beatty down on Ashley Creek, there they raised a nice crop of wheat and a good garden. In the fall, Mr. Johnstun went to Heber and while there decided to buy a threshing machine to bring home with him. Before he returnedl the Meeker Massacre occurred and Uncle Jerry Hatch advised everyone to get into a fort. They came to Mrs. Johnstun and told her to go into the fort or she would likely be killed by the Indians. She showed the true spirit of the pioneer woman, and said, "I will stay and take care of our crops. I have a good dog and I am not afraid." Mr. Johnstun returned home to find his home in the fort.
After the hard winter, Mr. Johnstun moved his home just west of where the Ratliff home now stands. Their cattle were all gone, but they soon had a lovely garden and were thankful for the land that was so productive. Mr. Johnstun had seen the possibilities for a sawmill on the mountains surrounding the valley. He also saw the great need of lumber in building up the homes in this new community of settlers. He brought the first sawmill to the Ashley Valley on Oct. 27, 1880. It was a difficult task to bring such heavy machinery over the rough roads. There were no bridges over the streams so all rivers had to be forded. Pimmy Rynmon helped him bring it in. The mill was taken to the Dry Fork mountain and for many years supplied the lumber for builders in the Valley. The mill was set in different parts of the mountain, and Mr. Johnstun built a planing mill on the northeast corner of what is now known as Main Street and Fifth West. This was in 1882. It was destroyed by fire in May of 1892. Mrs. Johnstun went into the mountains with the men to do the cooking, taking her family along with her. When the children had grown and the boys were called to serve in the war Mr. Johnstun retired from the sawmill business. He was thrown from a ar and badly injured and died on Dec. 18, 1920. Mrs. Lauretta Johnstun helped during these early days trying to care for the sick, and took an active part in the church organizations. She is remembered by everyone for her kindness and sympathy, he helpfulness and high standards.

THE STORY OF GEORGE E. AND LOUISA M. THORNE
James G. Thorne came to Vernal with Johnnie Steinaker in 1876 via Rock Springs, Wyo. They crossed Green River on a ferry boat at Brown's Pary, camping that night at the mouth of Sear's Canyon. During the night one of the horsed died so when camp was broken and packed they fastened the one horse to the wagon axle with a stay chain so he would have to pull the entire load. Mr. Thorne help up the other end of the neck yoke all the way up Sear's Canyon and across Diamond Mountain to Diamond Spring. There they met Frank Steinaker, Johnnie's brother, and he let them have a horse to come on to Ashley Valley.
George E. Thorne came to Ashley Valley looking for his father, James G., in 1880. He found him living in a dugout about two and one-half miles north of Vernal. That summer they built a cabin of large cottonwood logs on Spring Creek on what is now the Ronald Preece farm.
George went back to Nebraska that fall and in the early spring he and his wife, Louisa, started west again. From Rock Springs they started to Ashley Valley with two freighters, Mim Shelmadine and John Blankenship. Upon reaching Diamond Mountain, they encountered a late snowstorm which was very severe for that time of year. The team was very poor and although they fed the horses all the flour and potatoes they had, the poor things could not make it. Thus it was necessary for them to break trail through the snow and travel on foot. At Diamond Springs were some other freighters who brought them to Vernal.
George and Louisa Thorne went back to Nebraska in late November and in February of 1883 their son Leo was born in Bellwood, Butler county. They returned to Vernal in the spring of 1886 and that fall they went back to Nebraska for the winter and for the last time, for the next spring found them permanent residents of Ashley Valley.
Mrs. Thorne started teaching in 1887 in what is today Ashley ward, the first schoolhouse being across the street and a little north of the present Ashley ward chapel. Prior to her teaching, Peter Dillman had taught this school in his own home for a couple of terms.
In the aforementioned schoolhouse, Mrs. Thorne started the first Sunday School. Some years later, traveling missionaries by the name of Mr. and Mrs. Ned Fowler, organized the Union Sunday School and Mrs. Thorne was superintendent of it for a great many years. The Congregational church was really an outgrowth of her efforts.
Mrs. Thorne has taught in the following schools, some of which are no more, due to reorganization in the school district: No. 9, Windy Ward, Davis Ward, Fairchild District Dryfork, Brush Creek, Jensen Ward, and Willow Creek. She has spent the greater portion of her long life in the education of the children of this county. Hundreds of the people here can credit their early school training to this devoted teacher and indefatigable teacher.
Mr. Thorne has operated ranches in Ashley, Dryfork, on Green River, and is now in conjunction with his youngest son Louis, owner and operator of a cattle ranch on Willow Creek, near Ouray, Utah.
This couple have raised to honorable manhood four sons, Leo, of Vernal, Gerald, of Salt Lake City, Robert Coin of Jensen and Louis of Willow Creek. Through their interest and understanding in public affairs and their high ideals of life they have made themselves felt for the betterment of the communities wherever they have lived.

TANCUM KEMPTON
Born in Idaho, came to Utah as a young man and pioneered with the early homesteaders here. At one time he owned the whole fo the northeast corner of Vernal. He married Liddia Dorathy. They had six children, Edith, Warren, Sylvia and Ray, now living.

GEORGE EDGAR WILKINS
Born Nov. 1, 1876, at Peoa, Summit county, Utah. Filled two missions, in South-western states 1898-1900: England, 1903-05. Came to the Uintah Basin in 1909 and settled in Vernal. Was superintendent of Sunday School in 1901-11, when he was called to be a Bishop. He presided over the Vernal Second ward for 17 years. During this time the chapel was completed. He was then made president of the High Priests of Uintah Stake. In the community, he held many important positions, city councilman, county commissioner, eight years assessor, one term. He was very interested in the Ouray Valley and with the cooperation of William Smart and Orson B. Calder, the money was borrowed from the Desert Savings Bank, $100,000, to build the present Ouray canal and enlarge the Whiterocks canal. This was completed about 916 and supplied water for the Ouray and Leota section. He was made president of the Ouray Valley Irrigation Company. Mr. Wilkins married Zina E. Miles, the daughter of B. F. and Rachel Chapen Milles of Peoa, Utah. In al of his activities, she supported and aided him.

TORA NIELSEN STARKIE
Tora Nielsen Starkie is the daughter of Peter Christian and Magdalene Nielsen. She was married to Christian Jacobson in Salt Lake City. Three and a half years later he died of typhoid fever, leaving her with two small children. Later she married Edward John Starkie, a widower with two children. They came to Ashley Valley in 1887, arriving on July 15, To them were born two sons and six daughters. She is the mother of ten children. They struggled through many hardships. Edward John Starkie died Jan. 16, 1833 of cancer, at the age of 89 years.

EDWARD JOHN STARKIE
Edward John Starkie, Ashley Valley pioneer, was born march 18, 1843, in Lincolnshire, England. Mr. Starkie was made Presiding Elder of the L. D. S. branch at Morley where he stayed until he brought his family to Utah in 1878. They landed in Salt Lake City July 3.

WILLIAM & HEPZABAH HODGKINSON
Mr. William Hodgkinson and wife Hepzabah, with four small children, came to Ashley Valley in October of 1881. The youngest son was then only three weeks old. Mr. Hodgkinson was active in the church and was dance manager in the old Naples ward log house. Mrs. Hodgkinson was a Relief Society teacher for thirty-six years. She was also a counselor in the ward Primary for some time. She lived in Naples for forty-two years. She is still living at the age of 92. She has always raised flowers and her flowers were always seen at church. Mr. Hodgkinson assisted with the building of the old Merrill ward chapel.

JOSEPH O. B. EATON
Born in Ohio Jan. 2, 1839. Came to Utah with the pioneers in 1851 and settled at Pleasant Grove, Utah. Married Victoreen Walker, came to Vernal first in 1882. While here that year he made molasses for William Ashton, went back to Pleasant Grove and moved his family to Vernal in 1833. He carried mail from Vernal to Ft. Thornburg and later when they moved the fort to Ft. Duchesne, driving the old black and white mule. Later he carried the mail to Jensen. During the time he was carrying the mail to Ft. Duchesne he did the government butchering of hogs and beef at Duchesne. He made the trip three times per week.

JOHN NIELSEN
"I, John Nielsen, was born June 9, 1858 in Bukkehane, Maribo Ampt, Holland, Denmark. My parents joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1885. As an avocation my father made baskets and we children were often sent great distances afoot with baskets for sale. After eleven long years of persecution and trials, my parents, my two sisters and myself left Denmark in the spring of 1866. After ten weeks of sailing we reached New York enroute to Zion. From New York we traveled alternately by rail and boat to Florence, Nebr. At that place we were met by ox teams sent by the church. When they were ready to begin the journey across the plains, all women and children able to walk were ordered to do so as the wagons were so heavily loaded with freight. I walked almost the entire distance from the Missouri river to Salt Lake City. The captain of the company was a husky man by the name of Abner Lowrey. We reached Salt Lake City Oct. 19, 1866. I had the pleasure of working in the Rock quarry up in the mouth of Little Cottonwood Canyon, helping to get some of the granite rock out for the Temple. I also worked for awhile in the first flour mill that was built in Utah.
On the 17th of November, 1881, I was married to Frances Higgins of West Jordan. The fall of 1885 we moved to Ashley Valley in Uintah county. In 1889 we moved to the Merrell ward. I served for two years. In those days bridges were poor and were made by placing logs from bank to bank of the streams to be bridged. I had the first rock culvert put in Uintah county.
In the late fall of 1899 I laid out the first brick schoolhouse in Naples district and moved the first dirt. In 1895 I dug the trenches for the foundation for our meeting house. For years I made many of the coffins for burials and also dug many graves and made the rough boxed and brick vaults and was on hand to assist in the burial.

FRANCES HIGGINS NIELSEN
Frances Higgins Nielsen was born April 28, 1862 at Lenham, Kent, England. She was the daughter of Jesse and Frances Hampshire Higgins. When she was six years old she came to Utah with the rest of the family. They came by ox team in 1868 and settled on the Jordan river in West Jordan. The following autumn they were married, on Nov. 17, 1881. She possessed an unusual and beautiful singing voice, singing in the choir at West Jordan and later when she came to Ashley Valley. She was a Relief Society teacher for many years and was the mother of fourteen children. She died Dec., 3, 1908.

CHARLIE CROUSE, JR.
A son of Charlie and Sarah Crouse, born November 9, 1851 near Richmond , Va. Left home when nine years old and came west and traveled through Wyoming and Dakota, finally locating in Rock Springs, Wyo. He then went to Brown's Park and came on down into Vernal in 1878. Mr. Crouse was interested in horse racing and horse trading, he was an out-door man and worked and traveled wherever his interest took him. He was living on the head of Pot Creek when the Indian trouble at Meeker started. Several families were moved into Salt Wells, south of Rock Springs, and Mr. Crouse, along with the Allens, Sears, Tittworths and others, moved their families here until the trouble was over.
Mr. Crouse married Mary Law, daughter of George and Elizabeth Law of England. Mr. Law worked in the coal mines in Rock Springs after coming to America from Scotland. Mr. and Mrs. Crouse were married about 1878 and three children were born to them.
At one time Mr. Crouse and A. G. Overhold owned real estate and business houses throughout the Uintah Basin, some of the homes owned by them were the present Woodard and Banks property, also a livery stable and saloon. Mr. Overhold bought out the business her in Vernal and Mr. Crouse and his family returned to the mountains where they continued to live the out-of-doors life they loved. One of Mrs. Crouse's sister, Alice, married Ed. Bahen, who owned the first livery stable in Vernal. It stood where the Vernal Theatre stands (in 1947) Here horses were stabled when people came in for supplies, and buggy horses were rented out. Mr. Bahen was a local Utahn. They have five children in their family. Mrs. Bahen died in Vernal.

EDWIN COLPIN, SR.
He was an early Vernal druggist and established the Colpin Drug store in 1903. He met and married one of the young ladies of the town, Miss Ida Bennett, daughter of Elizabetha and George Bennett. They were a popular among the young people and especially after they introduced the business of selling ice cream. This was made by Mrs. Pontha Calder.
They moved into Payette, Idaho, where Mrs. Colpin and her two children still live.

ROBERT JOHNSTON
Born at Pleasant Grove in 1866. Came with his father to Ashley Valley in 1877. Married Elinor Cusick Tenney in Patterson, N. J. Came back to Vernal in 1898. Was a stage driver between Vernal and Price. Moved to Alhandra, road station of the Uintah Railway Co., on the Green River, in 1910. Cared for equipment and operated the ferryboat until 1920. Moved to California in 1946.

ALONZO ORSON PERRY
Was born May 17, 1836, in Lewis, Essex Co., New York, the son of Stephen and Rhodly Edwards Perry. When a young man he was a member of the company who went out to meet the Mormon Handcart Company. He was a member of the National Guard and the Standing Army. On the 18th of October, 1863, he married Louisa Stowell, who died in childbirth with their first child, Nancy, who also died.
On Nov. 11, 1865, he married Ann Janette Stowell, a sister of his first wife. They had eight children. In 1891 he sold the farm and moved with his family to Uintah county where he purchased a larger farm. In his older years he was very interested in Genealogy work. He died in Vernal in 1912.

JANETTE STOWELL PERRY
Born June 29, 1849, in Indiana. On the journey to California, her father and mother died, leaving the children to be taken care of by an uncle. She married Alonzo O. Perry. Died in 1912.

JOSEPH HYRUM BATEMAN
Born March 7, 1853 in Iron county, Utah. Married Sylvia Amelia Glazier Dec. 28, 1876. She was born Nov. 4, 1859 at Freemont, Iowa and died Jan. 29, 1929, at Vernal. He died April 8, 1936. They came to Vernal in 1888 with the John Win family and lived in Ashley ward the greater part of their lives. Joseph spent many years hauling freight from Salt Lake City and Price to Vernal. They had seven children.

MARIE A. JOHNSON WORKMAN
Born Jan. 12, 1847 at St. Joseph. Married Jacob Reader Workman Dec. 9, 1864. They came to Ashley in 1881.


Mass Effect 3

Ashley returns to fight the Reapers, provided she survived on Virmire. If she did not, Kaidan Alenko will take her place in the squad. By the time of the events of the Reaper Invasion, Ashley has been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Commander, received several commendations and has served in a covert-operations unit.

During the Reapers' invasion of Earth, Ashley assists in evacuating Shepard from Earth on-board the Normandy SR-2, where she then joins Shepard to a mission to recover Prothean data on Mars. Ashley still shows some mistrust towards Shepard after discovering a Cerberus presence on Mars, becoming more worried about the experiments performed on Shepard after discovering that Cerberus processed their own people. Near the end of the mission, after chasing down Dr. Eva, Ashley is critically injured after the Illusive Man orders Dr. Eva to "finish her." After disabling Dr. Eva and fleeing Mars, Shepard takes her to Huerta Memorial Hospital on the Citadel, where she slowly recuperates. While recovering, Udina offers her Spectre status.

Shepard is able to speak to Ashley in the hospital after every major mission, where they can choose to be either friendly or hostile to her. Although Ashley admits that her doubts about Shepard are still present, she promises to work with them and trust them. She tells Shepard about the hard times her sister Sarah is going through as her husband, being a marine, was called back into action. If the Commander asks her about her promotion to Lt. Commander, she remarks the old "Williams curse" must be losing its grip, to which Shepard replies that she'd earned it.

In time, Ashley recovers from her injury and accepts Udina's offer. Shepard can speak with her on Huerta Memorial regarding this, with the conversation shifting to her family. Ashley reveals that her family has made it onto the Citadel. Sarah's husband was killed in action, however, and she wants to at least say some words at the Lieutenant's memorial service.

When Cerberus invades the Citadel, Ashley is tasked to protect the Councilors but is unaware that Udina is working with Cerberus to take control of the Council. This puts Shepard and Ashley in conflict, and she must be convinced of the truth.

Depending on past interactions with her, Ashley can be talked down. If Shepard succeeds in talking Ashley down, she will turn her gun on Udina and order him to stand down. Udina will then raise a gun on the asari Councilor and if Shepard doesn't shoot Udina, Ashley will.

If Shepard cannot persuade Ashley to back off, then Shepard will be forced to kill Ashley. If not Shepard, a squad member will shoot her instead. Her name will appear on the memorial wall aboard the Normandy.

If Ashley lives through the coup, she meets Shepard by the docks as the Commander is about to return to the Normandy, where she reflects on how they both almost killed each other doing what they believed to be right. Ashley mentions that she was offered a place on Admiral Hackett's team but that if she has any choice in the matter she would rather be on the Normandy. Shepard can either allow her back in or leave her behind to provide assistance in the war. If Shepard hasn't built a good enough relationship with Ashley, she will not offer to return to the Normandy in this case, Shepard has to be very persuasive to convince Ashley to rejoin Shepard's squad.

If Ashley is assigned to Hackett's team instead of being allowed back onboard the Normandy, she sends Shepard an e-mail.

Just wanted to pass along I'm settling into my new post with Admiral Hackett. Too many things to get done- not a lot of rack time.

I'm starting to get a handle of the enormity of what we're up against. We get new intel everyday that needs to get processed into practical action. Turns out, I'm good at breaking things down to the practical. No surprises there.


Ashley takes up residence on the Starboard Observation Deck, the quarters formerly occupied by Samara. Once on the Normandy, Ashley seldom says anything enlightening if Shepard isn't pursuing a relationship with her.

After the turian platoon's rescue on Tuchanka, she sympathizes with the primarch's son, knowing that it's never easy losing people in one's unit. After the bomb's defusal on the same planet, she expresses that it was a "[d]amn shame it went the way it did." She stands by the Memorial Wall to pay her respects to Kaidan. Shepard tells her to put in a good word for them.

After bugging out of Utukku alive, Ashley complains that she's still got slime to clean off her armor. She approves of the rachni Queen (or its replacement) dying, and is distrustful of the deal Shepard brokered if otherwise. She also comments on Grunt, offering condolences if he was killed, or remarking about his "badassery" if he walked out alive.

After the evac on Gellix Ashley says she hopes a bunch of ex-Cerberus can be trusted. If Jacob is alive she's just glad he turned out alright. She does note that scooping those scientists from under the Illusive Man's nose is bound to piss the guy off, and that things could've turned out worse with civilians and children in the mix.

After blowing up the monastery on Lesuss, if she was on the mission, Ashley remarks that Banshees aren't a side of the asari she wants to see, and acknowledges Shepard's knack for making "unusual" friends if Samara was encountered. She wants to read Sarah's old letters again due to the events that took place on the planet.

Ashley expresses her lingering resentment towards the geth after the destruction of the sabotaged geth dreadnought over Rannoch. She sighs in frustration and disbelief that even after all these years, she is still fighting the synthetics. Humorously, Ashley scoreboards the destruction of the geth ship: a 1-0 lead of humanity versus the "blinky flashlights".

After the rescue attempt on Admiral Koris she approves of Shepard strafing the geth from the shuttle if she was present at the time. If Koris was saved that got her thinking about the value of a good leader, on how many lives should be sacrificed to protect a truly inspired one, and hopes she never has to find out.

She does interact with the crew at times, and in one amusing interlude after Shepard's trip to the Geth Consensus Shepard finds Ashley lying wasted on the floor with a hangover. Ash reveals she spent the previous night trying to 'get her mind off stuff' by drinking an entire bottle of unspecified liquor with James. As the other human Spectre lies mewling on the cold starboard floor Shepard can either respond to this with playful banter or strict professional scolding.

After the geth-quarian war's conclusion on Rannoch, Ashley offers her perspective on things depending on how events turned out.

If Shepard chose the geth leading to the death of the quarians and Tali's suicide, Ashley is heartbroken over Tali's death, saying "she was like a little sister" and that she needs some time to mourn her death. If Tali died months earlier during the suicide mission, Ashley will be much more harsh with Shepard. She knows they need allies to defeat the Reapers, but with her bias against the synthetics she defers to Shepard's decision, telling the Commander they should hope it was the right decision. She further tells Shepard to keep the geth away from her.

If Shepard chose the quarians over the geth, Ashley recalls the loss of the 212 on Eden Prime and says she's glad it's over now. She also says it's the right call, with her view on the quarians being a big help with the tech stuff, and that she'd rather scope down some tin can than a person. If Shepard managed to make peace between the quarians and geth, Ashley's impressed on the feat. She expresses skepticism as to how long the peace will last.

During one of the downtimes after missions, Ashley sends a mail to Shepard stating that the preparations for Sarah's husband's memorial service are complete. It takes place on the Refugee Docks' Memorial Wall, and Shepard can visit the sisters there in one of the next trips to the Citadel.

Ashley compares her sister's demeanor to their father's during the memorial: all smiles regardless of stress. If Shepard commends this behavior, Ashley delves further into memories of her father before joining Sarah in shared remembrance.

Ashley sympathizes with Liara's grief after the disastrous mission on Thessia. She tells Shepard she will talk to Liara to ease her suffering.

After the mission on Horizon, Ashley is horrified by what the squad found in the ruins, either through second-hand retelling or, if personally present, being distressed enough to be unable to forget the place. Just when she thought she's heard of everything, she notes how the plan to lure in refugees was so cold and calculating that she can't understand it. She is glad that she can't, as it's what helps retain her humanity. If Miranda died on Horizon Ash consoles Shepard, knowing she meant a lot to the Commander. Speaking further, she wonders aloud about what the galaxy's refugees will do next.

After the raid on Cronos Station, Ashley expresses her relief in seeing Cerberus well and truly gone. Even though she doesn't want to reopen old wounds, she appreciates the irony of Shepard being the one responsible. Her final words about Cerberus before closing the matter for good is "good riddance."

Ashley can be spoken to during the final assault on Earth, loitering near a couple of soldiers and a structure housing the London FOB's holographic communications terminal. Otherwise, if she was previously handed over to Hackett she won't be among the people Shepard can talk to in the FOB's communications center.

Restless when Shepard inquires how she's holding up, she asks back if they have a chance, and the Commander assures her there's always hope as it got them so far. She praises Shepard as the reason all of them got to where they are now, and if Shepard answers that Ash and other people like her picked the Commander up when they stumbled, Ash quips back that "hero-lady/hero-man" saved her almost as many times as she saved them.

She feels it's been a thousand years since Eden Prime, finding it hard to figure out how they got to their current situation. Ash was always a survivor, and Shepard compliments her as such, though she doesn't really believe it until her Commander adds that she's also a Spectre and a fine soldier. There's one more hill to take, Shepard queries the Lieutenant-Commander if she's ready, and she confidently responds that she is.

If Ashley is in the squad at the final push towards the conduit, she will be killed by Harbinger alongside another squad member if Shepard failed to muster enough of the galaxy's forces for the fight. If she survived and Shepard activated the Crucible, Ashley may be seen convincing Joker to fly the Normandy to safety before getting caught in the blast wave. Much later, Ashley will be among the mourners paying their respects to the fallen at Normandy's memorial wall.

Mass Effect 3: Citadel

Ashley's presence during and after Shepard's shore leave adventures is dependent on her not being dead or sent to Admiral Hackett after the attempted Citadel coup.

Ashley tags along with the rest of Shepard's gang in trying to determine the mastermind behind the latest attempt on the Commander's life. Liara figured out that they have a lead after tracing the M-11 Suppressor Shepard stole from one of the assailants, a weapons dealer named Elijah Khan who happens to run a public event on his Silver Coast Casino. Shepard can bring Ash along in the plan to get answers from the man, and the second Spectre dons a tight blue evening dress for the occasion if chosen.

She's also part of Team Mako with Liara and Maya Brooks during the all-out assault on the Citadel Archives, provided Shepard does not require her in the squad.

When Shepard's botched shore leave is settled and real opportunities for Citadel R&R arise, Ashley can request a meet with Shepard at the Silver Coast Casino upper bar, where she dares the Commander to a drinking contest to prove who is a "real Spectre" and who's just pretending to be one. Shepard can match her shot-for-shot or allow her to win the challenge.

The two have their evening interrupted by a batarian and a vorcha, with the former persistently poking Shepard and proclaiming their dislike for "Alliance types". Shepard quips "rain check" to Ash, and the two "Alliance types" proceed to beat up the aggressors.

Ashley can also be used as a squadmate for Shepard for competitions in the Armax Arsenal Arena, not requiring any ally license unlike certain other squadmates.

Despite being on Shepard's team, Ashley is an optional invite to the Commander's big party. At the party's first phase she sits with James by the ground floor couches, teasing Cortez.

At the party's second phase, if the mood was set to energetic Ashley is encouraged by James Vega to support him in his argument for physical training over biotics. If Ashley and James are both unromanced she flirts with James and shows interest in his physique. As the night goes on the two can grow closer and Shepard may encourage them to hook up, or tell them to cool things off. In the former case, Vega tries to woo her with the Spanish phrase "tu con tantas curvas, y yo sin frenos" ("you with such curves, and me with no brakes"), which Ashley keeps asking him to repeat. If romantic overtures were made to either of them then abandoned at key moments, Ashley vacillates between attraction and rejection, not siding with James during the argument.

If everyone was invited to dance at the last leg of the party, Ashley is still by the balcony watching either Vega doing sit-ups or Liara floating James around. If romance did not blossom between the two of them, Ash and James just display their moves in the balcony when Shepard checks in on them.

If the mood is set to relaxed for the party's final phase, Ashley sits with Steve, Joker, and most of Shepard's acquaintances in the upper floor couches. If Wrex is around, he recounts the time on Virmire when he was ready to kill for the genophage cure. He asks Ashley if she would've killed him back then. Ash says so without hesitation if he left her no choice, and Wrex announces that he respects her for that.

If Shepard is in a relationship with her, the two awake in Shepard's bed the next morning and kiss each other before rising. Ashley can be found standing by the central island counter in the kitchen later regardless of relationship status with Shepard, watching Vega cook eggs.

Romance

When Shepard visits Ashley in the hospital, she will call him out if he was in a prior relationship with her, but pursued another person while working with Cerberus. She is very judgmental of Miranda and Jack but seems more comfortable with the idea of Shepard and Tali being together, saying "Tali is like a little sister, I totally approve. not that you needed my approval." Though despite saying that, if Shepard hasn't built enough of a friendly rapport with her, Ashley does display signs of jealousy during the assault on the geth dreadnought if brought along with Tali, even making catty remarks towards her.

If Shepard has remained faithful to Ashley, the conversations in the hospital are a lot more cheerful and less confrontational. The relationship progresses well if Shepard tries to be as friendly as possible and buys Ashley 'The Collected Alfred Tennyson' from the Sirta Supplies store.

If Ashley is chosen to come aboard the Normandy, Shepard can start, or restart a relationship with her. Ashley does not talk a lot on the Normandy. Eventually, Ashley will send an email asking Shepard for help Ashley is going to comfort her younger sister Sarah who has lost her husband and doesn't want to do it alone. If Shepard is comforting and respectful to Ashley, the relationship is cemented further.

Later on, she sends another email asking Shepard to meet her on the Citadel. Ashley tells him how her dad would have liked Shepard. She apologizes for all that has happened between them and asks if they are "going somewhere". If Shepard reciprocates, they share a kiss together.

Just before the assault on the Cerberus headquarters, she visits the Captain's Quarters and, unless directly turned down, she tries to comfort Shepard about all the people they've lost. She expresses how she felt lost herself and that it broke her heart when Shepard was dead. At long last, they admit their love for each other, then kiss and spend the night together.

In a final conversation between her and Shepard on Earth, they reflect on how many times they've saved each other in the past. Shepard then recites from one of Tennyson's poems The Charge of the Light Brigade, a reference to how poetry has been used to convey their feelings throughout their relationship. Ashley grabs Shepard and tells him she doesn't want him to go and that she loves him. He gently replies that he loves her too and then says 'let's get it done, and go home'. In a breaking voice, Ashley responds "aye aye Captain."

If Ashley is the love interest for Shepard, the last thing he will see will be an image of Ashley looking at him and warmly smiling.

After the firing of the Crucible, she will be seen placing Shepard's name on the Memorial Wall, or, if the Reapers are destroyed and enough of the galaxy's forces have been mustered, she will smile and refrain from placing the plaque, and the Normandy is seen flying off.