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Patapasco IV mon. - History

Patapasco IV mon. - History

Patapasco IV mon.

Patapsco IV
(Mon: dp. 1,875; 1. 241'; b. 46'; dph. 11'10"; dr. 11'1"; s.
6 k.; cpl. 105; a. 1 15" D.sb., 1 150-pdr. P.r.)

The fourth Patapsco, an ironclad monitor, was built by Harlan & Hollingsworth, Wilmington, Del.; launched 27 September 1862; and commissioned 2 January 1863, Comdr. Daniel Ammen in command.

Assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Patapsco participated in an attack on Fort MeAllister at Savannah 3 March 1863. Moving to the North Edisto River in April, she sailed for Charleston on the 5th to participate in the assualt on that city's defenses. Under almost continuous fire during the remainder of April and in July and August, she continued to operate against the forts in Charleston Harbor, and on 8-9 September she supported the storming of Fort Sumter. Through the fall of 1863 and 1864, she remained off that South Carolina city, engaged in the general attacks on the harbor's defenses.

On the evening of 15 January 1865, however, while covering picket boats dragging for torpedoes (mines), Patapsco hit a torpedo and sank in less than a minute, taking 62 of her crew with her.


Lymphoma

Stage IV adult lymphoma drawing shows four panels: (a) the top left panel shows cancer in the liver (b) the top right panel shows cancer in the left lung and in two groups of lymph nodes below the diaphragm (c) the bottom left panel shows cancer in the left lung and in a group of lymph nodes above the diaphragm and below the diaphragm and (d) the bottom right panel shows cancer in both lungs, the liver, and the bone marrow. Also shown is primary cancer in the lymph nodes and a pullout of the brain with cerebrospinal fluid.

© 2019 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights. Used with Permission. Contact artist at www.teresewinslow.com external icon for licensing.

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Stage IV adult lymphoma drawing shows four panels: (a) the top left panel shows cancer in the liver (b) the top right panel shows cancer in the left lung and in two groups of lymph nodes below the diaphragm (c) the bottom left panel shows cancer in the left lung and in a group of lymph nodes above the diaphragm and below the diaphragm and (d) the bottom right panel shows cancer in both lungs, the liver, and the bone marrow. Also shown is primary cancer in the lymph nodes and a pullout of the brain with cerebrospinal fluid.

© 2019 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights. Used with Permission. Contact artist at www.teresewinslow.com external icon for licensing.

Lymphoma external icon is a general term for cancers that start in the lymph system (the tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infections). The two main kinds of lymphoma are&mdash

  • Hodgkin lymphoma, which spreads in an orderly manner from one group of lymph nodes to another.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which spreads through the lymphatic system in a non-orderly manner.

Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in children, teens, and adults.


There was a time when the moon did not exist

In ancient writings and traditions one can find proof of a time when the moon did not exist. Democretus and Anaxagoras mention that there was a time when no moon could be seen in the night skies. In describing the history of the Greek region of Arcadia, Aristotle writes that the Pelasgians lived in the area since very old times at a time when the moon did not exist. Apollonios from Rhodes mentions something similar he talks about a time when not all of the celestial objects existed in the sky before the time of Deucalion’s and Pyrra’s generation (before the cataclysm) when the moon did not exist and the only humans that existed were the Pelasgians living on the mountains of Arcadia (region in Greece). These inhabitants of Arcadia where also known as Proselenes (meaning “those that were before moon” in Greek).

In Plutarch’s work “Morals” we find the following < : “There were Arcadians of Evander’s following, the so-called pre-Lunar people. Similarly, Ovid wrote: “The Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before the birth of Zeus, and the folk is older than the Moon.” Stephanus of Byzantium wrote: “Arcadians and females, both exist before the moon”. Hippolytus refers to a legend that “Arcadia brought forth Pelasgus, of greater antiquity than the moon.” Lukianos in his Astrology says that “the Arcadians affirm in their folly that they are older than the moon”.

Evidence has also been found in other parts of the world.In Bolivia symbols on the wall of the courtyard of Kalasasaya (built in 13,000 BC) provide evidence that the moon came into orbit around the Earth at a specific moment in time thousands of years ago, long before what mainstream historians refer to as recorded history. Moreover the calendar gate in the same site provides evidence that a smaller satellite once rotated around the Earth.

The oral traditions of Colombian Indians of the Bogota highlands in the eastern Corldilleras of Colombia refer to a time before the moon. . “In the earliest times, when the moon was not yet in the heavens,” say the tribesmen of Chibchas (1). Africa also provides its own evidence. According to Zulu legend, the moon was brought hundreds of generations ago by two brothers of alien form, Wowane and Mpanku.

What does all this mean? The ancient memory of an Earth inhabited by humans without a moon has passed from generations to generations forming the traditions of numerous civilizations. How did the moon get there? Is it a part of the Earth? A planet that entered the magnetic Earth’s magnetic field? Was it naturally formed or made by some lost civilization?


Contents

Early life [ edit | edit source ]

Mothma sat in the Galactic Senate by 32 BBY.

Mon Mothma was born in 46 BBY ΐ] into a political family her father was an arbiter-general in the Galactic Republic, and her mother was a governor on their homeworld of Chandrila. ⎗]

By 32 BBY, ⎘] she had joined the Republic's Galactic Senate, ⎙] becoming one of the youngest senators to date. ⎗] At the age of fifteen, during the Chandrilan winter, Mothma fell in love, discovered smashball and her parents' imperfections. Because of that, she decided to turn her back on her family's political dynasty to become a historian. By the next summer, however, her moment of rebellion had been forgotten. She ended up returning to politics, both because of family pressures and a genuine love of governance. ⎚]

The Clone Wars [ edit | edit source ]

An advocate for peace [ edit | edit source ]

Mon Mothma represented the planet Chandrila in the Galactic Senate during the Clone Wars.

She became a member of the Loyalist Committee, a group of senators tasked by Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine to maintain the integrity of the Republic during the political crisis that saw the formation of the Confederacy of Independent Systems. Ώ] After the Clone Wars broke out between the newly-formed Grand Army of the Republic and the Droid Army of the Separatist Alliance, Mothma remained a member of the Loyalist Committee but became an outspoken opponent of the war with the Separatists. Mothma, along with friends and allies like Senators Padmé Amidala of Naboo and Bail Prestor Organa of Alderaan, came to fear that the Republic's push to defeat the Separatists made it blind to the toll that the war would take on the Republic. She warned that wartime measures, such as the increasing scope of the emergency powers that the Galactic Senate gave the chancellor, were a threat to democracy. It was the desire of Mothma and her allies to find a peaceful solution to the Clone Wars, and Mothma served as a mentor to Amidala as the young senator became one of the leading advocates for peace in the Republic. ⎛]

During the Battle of Malastare, the Grand Army of the Republic discovered a creature known as the Zillo Beast that dwelled underneath the surface of the planet Malastare. Having been given a way to the surface by the bombardments during the battle, the Zillo Beast fought against the Republic Army, and it was discovered that the creature was nearly-indestructible. ⎜] In the hopes of replicating the indestructibility for use in clone trooper armor, Chancellor Palpatine approved the creature's relocation to Coruscant, the capital of the Republic. The Zillo Beast escaped from captivity and made its way towards the Senate Office Building to find the chancellor, who had ordered the beast be destroyed so its indestructible scales could be removed for testing and replication. The creature attacked the Senate Office Building, and Mothma was present during the attack, walking the corridors of power with Senator Organa. The Republic and the Jedi soon eliminated the creature, bringing an end to the threat against the Senate. ⎝]

Mothma watches the full recording of Deputy Minister Jerec, who argued against a Republic occupation of Mandalore.

The neutrality of the planet Mandalore, led by Duchess Satine Kryze, soon came into dispute when the Mandalorian splinter group known as Death Watch threatened to overthrow the pacifist New Mandalorian government that the duchess led. The Senate debated whether or not to send military assistance to Mandalore, a move that the duchess strongly opposed—and one that the Separatists hoped the Republic would enact, as they believed that the people of Mandalore would greet the Death Watch as liberators fighting against a Republic occupation force. The Senate initially voted to send an occupation force, based on doctored evidence suggesting that Mandalore's Deputy Minister Jerec called for a Republic presence on his world to combat Death Watch. In actuality, the full recording of Jerec showed that he argued strongly against a military occupation. Mothma was present in the Senate session in which Jerec's true words were broadcast, and the Senate ultimately voted against sending Republic forces to Mandalore. ⎞]

In response to the growing number of refugees displaced by the ongoing war with the Separatists, Senator Amidala and Senator Organa led a conference to discuss and, hopefully, resolve the issue. The conference took place on the planet Alderaan, and Mothma was in attendance. She and Organa greeted Amidala, the keynote speaker, when she arrived on Alderaan and escorted her to her quarters. The conference was briefly disrupted when a bounty hunter, Aurra Sing, attempted to assassinate Amidala on behalf of the imprisoned crime lord Ziro the Hutt, but the conference continued onward when Amidala was saved by Padawan Ahsoka Tano. ⎟] Soon after, Senator Mothma attended a party thrown by Amidala in Amidala's apartment in honor of Senator Aang, a member of the Military Oversight Committee who was persuaded to vote in favor of reducing military spending. ⎠]

Military funding debate [ edit | edit source ]

Senators like Mothma, Amidala, and Onaconda Farr were outspoken opponents of increased military spending.

The Galactic Senate became embroiled in debates regarding the cost of fighting the Clone Wars. A particularly passionate topic of debate was whether the Senate should fund the creation of more clone troopers to combat the Separatist Alliance, despite the Republic nearing bankruptcy as a result of the war. Senator Gume Saam argued in favor of a bill that would open new lines of credit to fund the Republic's war effort. Mothma spoke out against the measure, arguing that it would essentially deregulate the banks. The Senate, at Organa's urging, tabled any decision on the proposal until the matter could be considered further. After an attack by Separatist demolition droids destroyed Coruscant's central power distribution grid, the Senate voted on the measure and opted to deregulate the banks in order to open additional lines of credit to fund the war effort. ⎡]

Despite the passage of the bank deregulation, the debate over increased military funding continued. Senator Halle Burtoni of Kamino, the source of the clone troopers, proposed legislation to create five million additional clone soldiers. Organa intended to speak before the Senate in opposition to the bill, but he was injured in an attack by Separatist-aligned bounty hunters Chata Hyoki and Robonino. As the Senate awaited his address, representatives in favor of Burtoni's bill urged the Senate to vote, while Mothma insisted that the bill's opposition, which included herself, be allowed to speak out against the legislation. With Organa too injured to speak, Amidala addressed the Senate on his behalf, giving an impassioned plea to oppose increased military funding so as to continue funding critical social services for the people of the Republic. ⎢]

Senator Onaconda Farr collapses and soon dies after drinking poison, as Mothma and other senators look on.

The Senate prepared to vote on the measure, and the bill's opposition continued working to persuade their fellow senators to vote against the increase in military spending. Mothma worked with Amidala, Organa, and Senator Onaconda Farr of Rodia in the efforts, and Amidala delivered another speech to the Senate on behalf of their position. The speech was greeted with enthusiasm from the Senate, and Mothma and the other opposition senators celebrated Amidala's address over drinks. Mothma told her former protege that she did brilliantly, though Amidala was reluctant to feel victorious until such time as Bertoni's bill was struck down. Bertoni herself crashed the conversation, suggesting that the opposition was loyal to the Separatists. Mothma urged the feuding representatives to end their argument, and Farr forced Bertoni to leave the gathering. The senator from Chandrila then praised Farr for leading the efforts against the bill, and the Rodian expressed regret for once siding with the Separatists against the Republic. Mothma assured him, however, that he was now doing the right thing by helping defeat the military spending increase. Farr unexpectedly collapsed after his drink was unknowingly poisoned, so Mothma ran to find help for the dying senator of Rodia. After his death, Mothma attended a memorial service for Farr on a Coruscant landing platform, before the senator's body was returned home. ⎣]

After the service, Mothma attended a meeting in Chancellor Palpatine's office, where Lieutenant Tan Divo of the Coruscant Security Force shared his theory that Farr had been murdered. After the meeting, Mothma conversed with Amidala, Organa, and Farr's aide Lolo Purs. Mothma wondered who would have wanted to harm Farr, and, despite Divo's theory that the murder was a result of a secret from Farr's past, Purs speculated that the assassination was the result of Farr's opposition to the spending bill. Organa urged them to put an end to speculation and double their efforts on defeating the bill, but Amidala insisted that they delay the vote until Farr's murderer was apprehended, lest senators vote in favor of the measure in order to avoid harm coming to themselves. Organa agreed to put a delay motion before the Senate while Amidala said she would conduct her own investigation. Mothma questioned her decision, as Divo had asked them not to interfere, but Amidala was sure that they could resolve the case better than Divo, in whom she had little confidence. Organa worried that such an investigation could disrupt the coalition against the bill, a concern that Mothma shared. Knowing that Amidala would see it through anyway, Mothma recommended that Amidala bring her head of security, Captain Gregar Typho, with her, but Amidala preferred to handle it alone. At Mothma's insistence, however, Amidala agreed to work with Senator Organa on her investigation. ⎣]

During the course of their investigation, Amidala and Organa were targeted for death by the assassin. They were discovered by Lieutenant Divo, who later met with the opposition group, including Mothma, and theorized that the killer was targeting the opposition leadership. Divo placed the group under his protection as he continued the investigation, though Purs left after objecting to having themselves all kept in one room as an easy target. Purs soon returned, claiming she had been attacked by Bertoni, one of the suspects in the murder, which Bertoni laughingly denied. She also denied being involved in the assassination of Senator Farr. Despite suspicion falling onto Bertoni, Amidala realized that Purs had to have been the assassin the poison targeted Rodians, so Purs would have died too if only she had taken a drink. Her duplicity having been discovered, Purs admitted to killing Farr due to his brief allegiance to the Separatist Alliance, and Purs was arrested for her crime. Soon thereafter, the Senate voted on the funding bill and passed the measure in spite of the opposition efforts of Mothma and the others, leading to the production of more clone troopers. ⎣]

The war continues [ edit | edit source ]

Mothma, along with Amidala and Organa, attends a peace conference with Separatist representatives on Mandalore.

As the war progressed, a peace conference was held between the Republic and the Separatists on the neutral planet of Mandalore, overseen by Duchess Satine. Mothma, Amidala, and Organa represented the Republic in the conference, while three members of the Separatist Senate represented the interests of the Separatist Alliance. The Separatists demanded that the three senators, as representatives for Chancellor Palpatine, recognize the legitimacy of the Separatist Alliance's existence, a stance that the senators were reluctant to take. The talks were disrupted by Lux Bonteri, son of the assassinated Separatist Senator Mina Bonteri, and asserted that Count Dooku, the leader of the Separatist Alliance, was behind his mother's death. Bonteri was removed from the talks, ⎤] but the talks did not result in peace between the two sides. ⎛]

The Jedi soon learned that a criminal named Moralo Eval had hatched a plot to kidnap Chancellor Palpatine. In order to infiltrate the conspiracy, led by Count Dooku himself, Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi faked his death so his face could be surgically altered to look like the bounty hunter Rako Hardeen, who had fired the shot that supposedly killed the Jedi Master. Believing that Kenobi was dead, Mothma attended the funeral held for the Jedi Master in the Jedi Temple. ⎥] Kenobi ultimately disrupted the plot to kidnap the Chancellor, and Palpatine was left unharmed. ⎦]

Mothma was one of many dignitaries who attended a funeral for the victims of the Jedi Temple bombing.

Some time later, Mothma attended yet another funeral in the Jedi Temple, this one for the victims of the bombing that killed several Jedi and civilians alike. ⎧] Mothma was a member of the court that would decide the fate of Ahsoka Tano, who was arrested and charged with being the mastermind of the temple attack. Tano was prosecuted by Admiral Wilhuff Tarkin and defended by Senator Amidala. Ultimately, it was discovered that Padawan Barriss Offee, who had grown disillusioned with the Jedi High Council for their leadership in the continuing Clone Wars, was responsible for the plot and had framed her friend and fellow Padawan for the attack. Tano was freed from Republic custody and chose not to return to the Jedi Order, as she was unwilling to return after the Jedi Council did not trust her innocence. ⎨]

Later in the war, former Senator Rush Clovis was installed as the leader of the InterGalactic Banking Clan. He was merely a pawn of Count Dooku, however, and his installation as leader led to a Separatist invasion of Scipio, the headquarters of the Banking Clan. The Senate voted to authorize a Republic military strike against the Separatist invasion force, and the Republic was able to repel the Separatists. In response to the actions of the Separatist Alliance, and following the death of Rush Clovis, the Banking Clan senator Nix Card ceded control of the banks, save one branch, to Chancellor Palpatine, a move that Mothma reacted to with disapproval. Palpatine promised to reinstate private control of the banks when the Clone Wars were over but urged that it was necessary to ensure financial stability in the interim, a stance that most of the Senate greeted with enthusiastic approval, since the Republic was saved from bankruptcy. ⎩] Shortly thereafter, Mothma was present in a Senate session in which Queen Julia of the neutral planet Bardotta spoke via hologram and requested the Republic's assistance in uncovering why Bardottan spiritual leaders were disappearing. At the queen's request, the Republic sent Gungan representative Jar Jar Binks, as well as Jedi Master Mace Windu, to help resolve the situation. ⎪]

Fall of the Republic [ edit | edit source ]

A meeting of loyalist senators, such as Mothma, planted the seeds of organized rebellion against Palpatine.

In the final days of the Clone Wars, the Chancellor continued to amass more executive powers. Palpatine was given control of the Jedi Council and appointed regional governors to oversee all of the star systems in the Republic. A small group of concerned senators, including Mothma, Amidala, and Organa, met in Organa's office at Cantham House ⎗] to discuss the developments. Amidala wondered if the Chancellor would dismantle the Senate, to which Mothma said there was little use in disbanding it. In her view, the Senate barely existed due to its diminished powers. The group refused to allow a millennium of democracy to end without a fight, and Mothma assured the group that they were not like the Separatists. Rather, they were still loyalists hoping to preserve the democracy of the Republic. Amidala lamented that the Chancellor, one of her oldest advisers from Naboo, had allowed things to reach such a point, and Mothma told her that Palpatine had expertly played the Senate during the war. Organa began to explain that he and Mothma were beginning to put together an organization to push back against Chancellor Palpatine, but Amidala cut him off, saying that she understood and that some things were best left unsaid. It was decided that the group would not discuss their plans with any outsiders, including family, without the agreement of the entire group. [source?] This simple meeting eventually set the spark for a highly secret Rebellion movement. Α]

Later, Mothma and the rest of the senators met in Padmé Amidala's apartment, where Mothma tells them that they are forming an alliance to stop Palpatine. However, Padmé suggests bringing the plan to the one Jedi she trusts, but Mothma and the group agree with Organa to appeal to the Senate first. Α]

The Clone Wars came to a close following the deaths of Count Dooku and the droid General Grievous. Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker discovered that Palpatine was secretly Darth Sidious, a Dark Lord of the Sith who had manipulated the entire conflict to gain power over the Republic. Mace Windu and three other Jedi Masters attempted to arrest the chancellor, but the Dark Lord killed them all and seduced Skywalker to the dark side of the Force, anointing him as the Sith Lord Darth Vader. Having found justification to eliminate his enemies, Palpatine declared the Jedi Order to be enemies of the Republic and ordered Darth Vader and clone troopers across the galaxy to destroy the Jedi. A disfigured Chancellor, injured in his confrontation with Master Windu, spoke to the Senate about the so-called Jedi betrayal and proclaimed that, in the interest of stability and security, the Republic would be reorganized into the Galactic Empire. The worst fears of Mothma and her allies were confirmed. Amidala died soon thereafter. Δ]

Amidala's death was blamed on the Jedi Rebellion, but Mothma, who attended her close friend's funeral, knew who was really at fault. Vowing to return democracy to the galaxy, ⎫] Mothma and Organa continued to prepare for resistance to the Emperor's rule. ⎛]

The Rebel Alliance [ edit | edit source ]

Early rebellion [ edit | edit source ]

Before she died, Amidala secretly gave birth to twins: Luke Skywalker and Leia Organa, the latter of whom was adopted by Senator Organa and his wife, Δ] Queen Breha Organa of Alderaan. Mothma knew the adopted Princess from an early age and watched as she grew to become a politician in her own right. Mothma became the princess' political tutor, teaching her before she took her father's place in the Imperial Senate, and watched as the princess became a leader in the emerging rebellion against the Empire. ⎬]

That rebellion emerged the years following the rise of the Empire, when several resistance movements developed across the galaxy to oppose Imperial rule. One such group was the crew of the starship Ghost, which operated on the Outer Rim world of Lothal before becoming part of a wider rebellion against the Empire. In time, these various resistance movements were united under Mothma and Organa's leadership. ⎭] They also had help from Ahsoka Tano, who had become a key figure in the emerging rebellion by acting as a contact for rebel cells. ⎮] Under Mothma and Organa's guidance, these cells became the Alliance to Restore the Republic. ⎭]

Building an Alliance [ edit | edit source ]

Senator Mothma onboard the Ghost.

In 2 BBY, ⎯] Mothma fled from Coruscant after she was branded a traitor and immediately rocketed to the top of the Empire's "Most Wanted" list ⎗] for giving a speech condemning the Ghorman Massacre. Mothma also resigned from the Imperial Senate due to her dissatisfaction with the Senate's failure to rein in the Empire's wrongs, with the Imperial Security Bureau issuing an alert for Mothma in an attempt to capture her. ISB agents also visited Cantham House on Coruscant, the meeting place of the Cantham House meetings, based on suspicions they had, and questioned Leia and several others there. ⎰] Mothma fled into hiding with her senatorial attache Erskin Semaj and the Y-wing squadron known as Gold Squadron. With the help of Senator Organa, Mothma rendezvoused in deep space with Phoenix Leader Hera Syndulla's ship Ghost. Hera and her crew were members of the Phoenix Cell, which operated in the Lothal sector. After Mothma's freighter, the Chandrila Mistress was attacked by Imperial forces, she and her crew abandoned their ship and sought refuge aboard the Ghost. Mothma helped Hera's droid Chopper to detach the Ghost from her stricken freighter. ⎱]

After escaping into hyperspace, Hera introduced her crew to Mothma. Mothma praised both Ezra Bridger, who was flying Gold Two's Y-wing starfighter, and the Lasat Captain Garazeb Orrelios for their services to the rebellion. Ezra thanked Mothma for her speech criticizing the Emperor. When Erskin counselled her to abandon her planned mission to Dantooine, Mothma refused and argued that she had to be present at that meeting. Mothma then informed the Spectres that she was planning to build an alliance of rebel cells to challenge the Empire and unify the rebellion. After Erskin warned them that the Empire was trying to intercept any ship leaving the system, Hera decided they would travel through the dangerous Archeon pass. ⎱]

During the journey, the rebels came under attack from Grand Admiral Thrawn's prototype TIE Defender starfighter and two TIE Interceptors. Three Y-wings were lost during the skirmish but the rebels also managed to destroy the two TIE interceptors. While Gold Leader Captain Jon Vander and Ezra distracted the TIE Defender, Hera flew the Ghost out of the Archeon Nebula only to find their way blocked by two Star Destroyers commanded by Governor Arihnda Pryce and Admiral Kassius Konstantine. ⎱]

While Hera and Chopper readied the Ghost ' s hyperdrive, Mothma tried to stall Governor Pryce with a list of demands. Pryce however rejected her demands and ordered Konstantine to activate the Star Destroyer's tractor beam projector. Before the Ghost could be drawn inside the Star Destroyer, Vander and Ezra emerged from the Archeon Nebula. Under Hera's orders, they fired their proton torpedoes into the nebula. This caused an explosion which badly damaged the two Star Destroyers and allowed the rebels to flee to Dantooine. ⎱]

Above Dantooine, Mon Mothma gave a speech stating that she had resigned from the Imperial Senate since it had been corrupted by the Emperor. With the Senate no longer able to protect the rights and freedom of the galaxy's citizens, she advocated the formation of an Alliance to Restore the Republic. This speech was witnessed by Senator Organa, General Jan Dodonna, and members of Ryder Azadi's Lothal resistance group and Phoenix Squadron. Shortly later, the rebel fleet emerged from hyperspace above Dantooine and the Alliance was formed, beginning the Galactic Civil War. ⎱]

Pragmatism [ edit | edit source ]

After escaping Grand Admiral Thrawn's siege of Atollon, Ezra contacted Mon Mothma via hologram and tried to solicit her help in sending reinforcements to aid the besieged Phoenix Squadron and General Dodonna's Massassi Group. However, the rebel leader was unwilling to expose the true strength of the Rebel Alliance to Thrawn and admitted that the Alliance was not yet ready for open warfare against the Empire. When Mothma promised to negotiate fair treatment for the prisoners, Ezra warned that Thrawn might not take prisoners. Before exiting the conversation, Mothma complimented Ezra for his courage and wished that the Force would be with him. Ultimately, the rebels managed to escape Atollon with the help of Mandalorians from Clan Wren. ⎲]

Mission to Jalindi [ edit | edit source ]

In the aftermath of Atollon, the Rebel Alliance, including Mothma, relocated to Yavin 4. ⎳] In 1 BBY, [source?] following Phoenix squadron's return from a failed supply mission, Mothma welcomed Hera Syndulla at the subsequent meeting, commending her bravery. After Bail Organa attributed their faulty intelligence to a new Imperial satellite relay on Jalindi, Ezra remarked on Saw Gerrera's more extreme methods of acquiring the information, to which Mothma was quick to remind him the rest of the Rebellion does not torture prisoners. When Alexsandr Kallus suggested intercepting the satellite relay, Mothma agreed to the plan and placed Hera in charge of the mission. At the meeting's conclusion, Ezra once again pleaded for Mothma's help in liberating Lothal. Though sympathetic to the planet's plight as much as other worlds under Imperial control, Mothma reminded Ezra the Rebellion was not yet strong enough to do so. That night, Saw appeared via hologram from an astromech droid, denouncing the leaders of the Alliance. Mothma was quick to respond, demanding to know his reasons for contacting them. When Gerrera reminded her of her refusal to destroy the Jalindi relay, Mothma in turn refused to fall to his level, reminding Saw of his numerous war crimes. Despite this, the relay was inevitably destroyed by Gerrera and the Ghost crew following the unexpected arrival of Brom Titus. ⎳]

Raid on Lothal [ edit | edit source ]

Weeks later, Mothma informed Ezra of a message from Azadi concerning a new development of the TIE Defender. Having witnessed the ships in action firsthand, Mothma asked for Ezra's help in gathering intelligence on Lothal. Bridger and the rest of the Ghost crew readily agreed, though Mothma could not guarantee their extraction due to the Empire's massive blockade. ⎴] After Hera and Chopper acquired the TIE/D Defender Elite's flight data recorder and returned to Yavin 4, Mothma and Erskin Semaj greeted the two rebels. ⎵]

Mon Mothma later attended a briefing with General Dodonna, Senator Organa, Semaj, and Syndulla to discuss the flight data recorder. During the meeting, Hera urged Mothma to launch a strike on the Imperial TIE Defender factories on Lothal and added that she had a ground strike team. Mothma responded by asking her and Chopper to wait outside while she discussed the matter. In private, Mothma and the others discussed Protocol 13. Hera re-entered the meeting and urged the rebel leadership to launch the strike. Mothma was swayed and authorized Syndulla's strike. ⎶] However, Syndulla's squadron of X-wing starfighters was intercepted and largely wiped out by Thrawn's Seventh Fleet. ⎷]

Death Star plans [ edit | edit source ]

Mon Mothma on Yavin 4, shortly before the outbreak of the Galactic Civil War.

By 0 BBY, Mon Mothma had become Chancellor ⎸] and Commander-in-Chief of the Rebel Alliance. As leader of the Alliance, Mothma was privy to Operation Fracture, ⎹] a secret operation to extract the scientist Galen Erso so that he could testify to the Imperial Senate regarding the existence of a planet-destroying superweapon called the Death Star. The Alliance had learned about the existence of the Death Star from the defecting Imperial pilot Bodhi Rook, who had been captured by Gerrera's Partisans. ⎺]

Operation Fracture involved the Alliance rescuing Galen's daughter Jyn Erso so that the Alliance could make contact with Gerrera and question Rook about the Death Star and Galen's location. The Alliance also needed Jyn to verify Galen's identity. When General Davits Draven objected to Jyn's presence on the Operation Fraction team due to her criminal and violent tendencies, Mothma countered that Jyn was essential to identifying Galen and persuading him to testify in the Senate about the Death Star. While recognizing Jyn's criminal tendencies, Mothma argued that everybody including criminals and outcasts deserved a second chance. ⎹]

Mothma also supported General Draven's recommendation that Captain Cassian Andor be assigned to Operation Fracture. While describing him as one of the best and brightest rebel operatives, Mothma expressed concerns that rebel fighters like Andor had to grapple with doing terrible things in the course of their services to the Rebellion. In addition, Mon Mothma was also briefed about several topics including Galen Erso's expertise on crystal science and energy generation, suspected Imperial disinformation, speculation about the Empire's planned weapons test, Grand Moff Tarkin, and Alliance military assets by various colleagues including General Draven, Senator Nower Jebel, Advisor Hostis Ij, General Jan Dodonna, and Admiral Raddus. ⎹]

Jyn convinced Saw to show her the message, which detailed the superweapon's destructive power and a weakness that Galen had deliberately set in the station. He also explained that a copy of the weapon's technical readouts were kept in the Citadel Tower on Scarif. Jyn was unable to deliver the holographic recording to the Alliance due the Destruction of Jedha City. Erso and Andor were able to escape Jedha, and set course for Eadu. En route, Andor relayed news of Jedha's destruction, while General Draven confirmed his orders to kill Galen Erso. ⎺]

Andor's U-wing crashed on Eadu because of the planet's foul weather. The loss of contact with Andor and his team forced Draven to launch a mission to Eadu, which succeeded at killing Galen Erso. ⎺]

Following the return of Andor's team to the Massassi base, Mothma led a discussion among the Alliance's leaders regarding the future of the rebellion. Despite knowing that full-scale war against the Empire was inevitable and wanting to escalate the fight, Mothma followed the recommendations of the council and denied Jyn Erso permission to launch a mission to retrieve the Death Star plans. Erso, Andor, and their crew disobeyed her orders and formed the Rogue One squad, which fired the opening shots of the Galactic Civil War at the Battle of Scarif. Rogue One's actions led to the intervention of the Alliance Fleet, which allowed the successful theft and transmissions of the plans to the Profundity and Tantive IV. ⎺]

Shortly thereafter, the Empire used the Death Star to destroy Alderaan, killing Organa with it. Ώ] ⎻] Mothma became the sole political leader of the Rebel Alliance, Ε] serving as its own chancellor throughout the Galactic Civil War. ⎸]

After Yavin [ edit | edit source ]

After the Battle of Yavin, in which Luke Skywalker, who had become a Rebel pilot, destroyed the Death Star and prevented the annihilation of the Rebel Alliance, ⎻] the Alliance debated trying to convince the Chekkoo clan of Rodia to join the Rebellion. Mothma was unsure of the idea, but Ackbar and Leia Organa agreed with it, and it was eventually decided they would send Skywalker on the mission. ⎼]

Mothma later sent Skywalker on a mission to retrieve logs of Imperial communications that were intercepted by several rebel cells along the Shipwrights' Trace. ⎽]

At some point later the Alliance High Command met in the Alliance Fleet to discuss what actions to take next. Organa, who had just completed a successful assault on Weapons Factory Alpha on Cymoon 1, urged the leadership to allow her team to continue pressing the Alliance's advantage against the Empire. Admiral Gial Ackbar told the princess that they could not maintain such an offensive due to still being on the run, a stance that Mothma agreed with. The chancellor said that the few resources that they had must be put towards keeping the fleet moving so the Empire could not find them. Only by establishing a new base, Mothma said, would they be able to change that stance. Concerned for the well-being of her old friend, Mothma also reminded the princess that she could not afford to continue pushing herself or her team so hard in the fight against the Empire. ⎸]

Mothma served as chancellor of the Rebel Alliance and a member of the Alliance High Command.

High Command later received word that Skywalker had been captured by Grakkus, a Hutt crime lord, on the moon of Nar Shaddaa. Despite Skywalker's value to the Alliance and his status as the hero of the Battle of Yavin, Mothma made the difficult choice to decide against using any large amount of Alliance resources to rescue him, knowing that the Rebellion could not move against a Hutt stronghold. She also believed that sending a covert team would be a suicide mission. Nonetheless, Skywalker's Wookiee friend Chewbacca and protocol droid C-3PO agreed to travel to Nar Shaddaa to help the captive Rebel. ⎾] With help from Organa, the smuggler-turned-Rebel Han Solo, and astromech droid R2-D2, who rendezvoused with them on Nar Shaddaa, Chewbacca and Threepio successfully rescued Skywalker. ⎿]

After Alliance forces managed to shoot down Darth Vader onto the planet Vrogas Vas during the battle of Vrogas Vas, Mothma approved of Leia's request for a coordinated Alliance strike on the Sith Lord, stating that his capture was preferable but eliminating him was acceptable. ⎰]

Mothma attending an Alliance High Command meeting in which Skywalker and Organa suggested that the Alliance attempt to hijack an Imperial-class Star Destroyer in order to break the Siege on Tureen VII. Mothma was skeptical of the plan, but ultimately approved it due to Skywalker and Organa's reputation. ⏀]

Following the Battle of Hoth, Mothma met Lieutenant Thane Kyrell, an Imperial-turned-Rebel, after he had become intoxicated following a night of drinking. Though he did not know who she was, Mothma helped find a chair so he could sit down, and he told her all about how he had defected from the Empire but still loved Ciena Ree, a childhood friend turned lover who served in the Imperial Navy. Mothma listened to his story, including how he was afraid that he might shoot Ree down in battle some day and that he did not want to let his fellow Rebels down for fear of killing the woman he loved. The next morning, Mothma briefed Kyrell and other pilots on a mission they were to carry out for the Alliance. At the end of the briefing, Mothma spoke to Kyrell, who apologized for his actions the previous night. Mothma told him that she did not drum anyone out of the Alliance for getting intoxicated once in a while, lest there be no Rebellion left to fight the Empire, but she did want to know he was capable of doing his duty. He assured her that he was, and he took heed of her words that it was acceptable to love someone on the other side of the war so long as he loved the cause of the Rebel Alliance more. ⏁]

The Battle of Endor [ edit | edit source ]

Three years after the Battle of Yavin, the Alliance learned from Bothan spies that the Empire was building a second Death Star in orbit of the Forest Moon of Endor. Mothma met with the Alliance High Command to discuss strategy for how to deal with the threat of a new Death Star, and it was agreed that the battle station had to be destroyed before it was fully operational. The leadership began planning for an assault on the Death Star II over Endor, but first the Alliance Fleet, which had broken up following the Rebellion's defeat during the Battle of Hoth—Mothma insisted that it break into smaller groups to avoid another disaster that the Empire could celebrate—would have to regroup near Sullust. Organa volunteered to lead an operation, codenamed Operation Yellow Moon, to distract Imperial forces while the Alliance Fleet gathered together. Mothma was opposed to the idea at first, and she spoke with the princess about her concerns—concerns stemming from Organa's willingness to sacrifice herself for the Alliance. The chancellor knew that Organa was in love with Captain Solo, who had been taken captive by Jabba the Hutt months earlier, and worried that Organa was willing to sacrifice happiness to die for the Rebel cause. Mothma also knew that Organa blamed herself for the destruction of Alderaan, so she told the princess a piece of intelligence: the Emperor intended to use the new Death Star to destroy worlds such as Mon Cala and even Chandrila, all to eliminate opposition to his rule. Mothma knew that if she allowed herself to be ruled by such fears, she would not be able to serve the Alliance. The chancellor approved Operation Yellow Moon, and urged her young friend not to deny herself an opportunity for love—a love denied because of total devotion to the Alliance—because of what happened to her parents and to Alderaan. ⎬]

Mothma briefs the Rebel Alliance on the plan for the Battle of Endor.

Operation Yellow Moon was successful and the Alliance Fleet gathered near Sullust. ⎬] When it was assembled, the High Command addressed Rebel forces aboard Home One, the Rebel command ship, and shared the existence of the second Death Star. Mothma also revealed that the Emperor himself was personally overseeing the completion of the station's construction. During the briefing, Admiral Ackbar and General Crix Madine outlined the plan of attack. General Solo was picked to lead a ground assault to destroy the shield generator protecting the Death Star, while Organa, Chewbacca, and Skywalker volunteered to accompany him. Β] After the briefing, Mothma spoke to Organa and expressed concern that the princess had volunteered for the mission. ⏂] As with Operation Yellow Moon ⎬] and the rescue of General Solo from Jabba the Hutt, Mothma feared that Organa was putting herself, a valuable member of the Alliance and the future republic that they hoped to build, at too great a risk. Mothma shared a story of how, after the Empire's massacre on the Wookiee homeworld of Kashyyyk, she thought that diplomacy was dead and she trained as a starfighter pilot in order to fight against the Empire. She realized, however, that while she could have helped win a battle, she could contribute more as the leader of the Alliance. Despite Mothma's concerns, which the princess understood, Organa felt it was her destiny to be part of the Battle of Endor and chose to accompany the Rebel forces to the Forest Moon. ⏂]

Before the Alliance Fleet left for Endor, Mothma's ship departed so she could be taken to a safe location. ⏂] The Battle of Endor commenced once the Rebel forces arrived over the Forest Moon. Unknown to the Rebellion was that the Emperor had allowed them to learn of the station's existence to lure the Rebels into a trap meant to destroy them once and for all. However, the Alliance emerged victorious: the second Death Star was destroyed, the Emperor was killed, Β] and the Empire was left leaderless and in chaos. The tide had turned in the war against the Empire. ⏃]

New Republic [ edit | edit source ]

Creating a new order [ edit | edit source ]

Twenty days after the Battle of Endor, Mothma tasked Organa with traveling to Naboo in order to gather support for the formation of a New Republic. Organa was reluctant to leave her other duties and recommended that Mothma send diplomats in her place, but the chancellor believed that Organa's skill and reputation were essential for the mission as the princess represented the best that the Rebel Alliance had to offer. Organa, along with her assigned pilot, Lieutenant Shara Bey, departed for the mission. Their time there coincided with the Empire launching an attack against the planet, as part of Operation: Cinder, ⏄] but Organa and Bey fought alongside Queen Sosha Soruna to repel the Imperial attack. ⏅] The Alliance continued fighting back against other strikes in Operation: Cinder for months. ⏆]

The formation of the New Republic achieved the goal of the Rebel Alliance.

The Alliance formed the New Republic in the months following the Battle of Endor. The Galactic Senate was reestablished and headquartered on Chandrila, as the New Republic felt that Chandrila represented a planet with big ideas that the Republic would need in order to be successful. Mothma was elected as the first chancellor of the New Republic Senate, and, to her great reluctance, the charter of the chancellor included the emergency powers that had once been given to Palpatine during the Clone Wars. It was Mothma's intention to do away with those powers, believing them to be a poison to democracy. Mothma also planned to propose a massive military disarmament once the Galactic Civil War came to end, hoping to cut the size of the New Republic Defense Fleet by ninety percent. The other ten percent would go towards training and supporting local militias, which would be responsible for the defense of their worlds. She proposed to put these ideas on the agenda of the first meeting of the reconstituted Senate. ⎖]

Later, Chancellor Mothma corresponded via hologram with Admiral Ackbar, General Crix Madine, Commander Kyrsta Agate, and Captain Saff Melor. The New Republic officers discussed the disappearance of Captain Wedge Antilles during a mission to Akiva and the reliability of an Imperial informant known as the Operator. When Melor advocated sending military ships to Akiva as a show of force, Mothma cautioned against it because she did not want to promote an aggressive image of the New Republic in the Outer Rim Territories. ⎖]

Captain Melor disagreed with the Chancellor and argued that Akiva was a marginal world whose government were allies of the Empire. In response, Mothma countered that the people outweighed strategic and political considerations. Mothma revealed she had intelligence of a rebellion on Akiva which she attributed to the success of the New Republic's messaging campaign. Admiral Ackbar agreed with the Chancellor's assessment. As a compromise, he proposed sending a small strike team of New Republic Special Forces to Akiva. The group agreed to Ackbar's proposal. As a result, Akiva became one of the first Outer Rim worlds to join the New Republic. ⎖]

Juggling ideals and reality [ edit | edit source ]

In 5 ABY, ⏇] Chancellor Mon Mothma continued to preside over the New Republic's war against the Galactic Empire. The New Republic seized more worlds from the Empire including Akiva and Arkanis. Chancellor Mothma and Princess Leia later traveled to the oceanic planet of Velusia to meet with Grand Vizier Mas Amedda, who was still struggling to rule the Imperial capital of Coruscant which was in the throes of a civil war. On the atoll Kolo-ha, the Grand Vizier tried to surrender but the Chancellor refused to accept his surrender and ordered him to find a way to secure the Empire's surrender. If he tried to walk away, Mothma and Leia threatened to have him tried for war crimes. ⏈]

Later, Chancellor Mothma presided over a meeting to discuss the state of the New Republic. During the meeting, Mothma urged her fellow leaders to focus on winning more member worlds. When her adviser Hostis Ij advocated finding new lines of food, fuel and other vital supplies, Auxi Kray Korbin interjected that a stronger military was not the solution. When Leia entered the room, Chancellor Mothma greeted her and apologized for not inviting her. Mothma was aware that Leia was under stress since her husband Han Solo had embarked on a mission to rescue Chewbacca. ⏈]

When Leia tried to lobby for ships and resources to be sent to liberate Kashyyyk, Mothma praised her for her idealism but warned her that the New Republic was preoccupied with trying to govern the galaxy. Despite Leia's pleas, Mothma reasoned that the New Republic lacked sufficient resources and manpower to liberate Kashyyyk. Frustrated, Leia stormed off. ⏈]

The faux peace offer [ edit | edit source ]

Chancellor Mothma entered into peace negotiations with Grand Admiral Sloane

After Admiral Ackbar liberated the planet Kuat and the strategically important Kuat Drive Yards, Chancellor Mothma contacted the Admiral via hologram to inform him and Princess Leia that she had received a communication request from the Operator, a shadowy Imperial operative who had been supplying vital intelligence on Imperial movements to Admiral Ackbar. Grand Admiral Rae Sloane, the leader of the Empire, then joined the conversation and claimed that she was the Operator. While Leia and Commodore Kyrsta Agate expressed skepticism, the New Republic leaders including Mothma took an interest in Sloane's offer to discuss peace with the New Republic. ⏈]

Believing that victory was imminent, Mon Mothma agreed to submit Sloane's offer to the Senate. As a gesture of trust, Sloane offered to have the Imperial-Republic peace talks take place on Chandrila with minimal guard. Mothma accepted Sloane's offer and agreed to remain in contact with her using a special channel. Later, Chancellor Mothma and Senator Organa greeted a hundred prisoners that the former New Republic pilot Norra Wexley and her team had liberated from Ashmead's Lock prison on Kashyyyk with the help of Han Solo. Unknown to Mothma and her fellow leaders, the real Operator was Fleet Admiral Gallius Rax, who was ruling the Empire from behind the scenes. In secret, Rax was planning to attack Chandrila using the liberated Ashmead's Lock prisoners to assassinate the New Republic leadership. He used inorganic bio-chip implants to control the former captives. ⏈]

A month following the rescue of the Ashmead's Lock prisoners, the Galactic Senate agreed to Sloane's offer for peace talks. Mothma timed the peace talks to take place after the Liberation Day celebrations to mark the liberation of the Ashmead's Lock prisoners. To prevent any obstacles to the peace talks, the Chancellor ordered the New Republic military to refrain from making any incursions into Kashyyyk. As a sop to Leia, Mothma agreed to raise the matter of Kashyyyk's liberation in her meeting with Sloane. Her pragmatism failed to sway the idealistic Leia, who insisted that the Wookiees' freedom and dignity was non-negotiable. ⏈]

After Grand Admiral Sloane landed at Hanna City Spaceport in her shuttle, Chancellor Mon Mothma and several New Republic soldiers, guards, and officials received the Grand Admiral and her entourage. Mothma then took her Imperial guests to the Old Gather-House and the Senate Plaza to watch the Liberation Day festivities, which featured artistic and musical displays by the various member worlds and species in the New Republic. When Sloane made a disparaging remark about Gabdorin music, Mothma responded that the New Republic represented everybody in the galaxy. ⏈]

Following the parade, Chancellor Mothma began a speech praising the liberated Ashmead's Lock prisoners for their contributions to the Rebellion. Before she could conclude her speech, the prisoner Brentin Lore Wexley tried to shoot her but was restrained by his wife Norra. The other prisoners also opened fire on the various New Republic officials present. Mothma survived the attack due to Norra's quick response but suffered serious injuries. Commodore Agate was badly scarred while General Madine and Adviser Hostis Ij were rumored to be dead. This attack ended any prospect for resolving the Galactic Civil War through diplomacy. In response, Fleet Admiral Rax ordered the Imperial fleets to assemble at Jakku. ⏈]

In the thick of politics [ edit | edit source ]

In the months after the attack on Chandrila, Chancellor Mon Mothma chaired a meeting of the Committee for Imperial Reallocation, which dealt with redistributing the resources of the fallen Empire. Growing weary, Mothma advocated ending the meeting early and delaying it till next month. Mothma was preoccupied with efforts to move the Senate and her office to the Mid Rim world of Nakadia. Despite Senator Ashmin Ek's protests, Auxi Kray Korbin reiterated the Chancellor's position and adjourned the meeting. ⏉]

Before leaving, the Hosnian Prime councilman Sondiv Sella asked Mothma about her arm. Mothma replied that her arm was still recovering and that she was taking therapy exercises. Sella also promised to lobby the committees to fruition and to support her for the upcoming election. After the senators had departed, Mothma and Auxi chatted about her popularity ratings and the matter of appointing a new adviser to replace the late Hostis Ij, who had perished during the attack on Chandrila. After reflecting on her tense rivalry with the Orishen Senator Tolwar Wartol, Mon asked Auxi how she could convince the Senate to vote for her again in the upcoming election. ⏉]

Auxi reassured Mothma that she was doing the right things by apportioning resources and infrastructure for worlds afflicted by the Empire and the vacuum of leadership. While Mothma had kept the military strong, she had not tried to enforce her will on a weakened galaxy. When Auxi mentioned the liberation of Kashyyyk, Mon respond that Kashyyyk had been a complicated matter since the Senate had resisted their involvement but that Leia had gotten involved. Mothma had approved the clandestine action because it had been successful. ⏉]

When Auxi opined that Kashyyyk was a victory for them, Mothma reminded her that they had secured this win by defying the will of the Senate. Auxi responded that leadership could mean defiance but Mothma countered that Palpatine was defiant. Auxi reminded her that Princess Leia was defiant but was not Palpatine. Auxi then raised the matter of law and order. Before Mothma could respond, one of the Chancellor's protocol droids R-K77 informed her of an urgent meeting request from Princess Leia. The droid added that the request was a Code K-one-zero request, which meant something of the utmost importance. ⏉]

News from Jakku [ edit | edit source ]

Princess Leia had received news from Temmin Wexley and Sinjir Rath Velus that the Imperial remnants had relocated to the Inner Rim world of Jakku. Upon arriving at Leia's domicile, she asked Temmin to recount everything that he had told Leia. Temmin explained that the Empire was on Jakku and that a lot of ships were in orbit including at least one Super Star Destroyer. Sinjir then interjected that his friends Norra Wexley and Jas Emari were on Jakku. When Chancellor Mothma remarked that the situation was fraught, Sinjir appealed to her to send military forces to save his friends and Temmin's mother. ⏉]

Chancellor Mothma pointed out that their mission to Jakku had been unauthorized. When Leia responded that she had authorized the mission, Mothma countered that she did not have the Senate's authority and that hunting Rae Sloane was the jurisdiction of the Senate. When Leia urged Chancellor Mothma to seize the opportunity to attack, the Chancellor responded that they had to be careful that they had all the facts before proceeding to Jakku. The Chancellor then explained that she was unable to authorize the deployment of military forces to Jakku without consulting the Senate. She also warned the others not to speak of their meeting. ⏉]

Unknown to Chancellor Mothma and the others, their conversations were being tapped by Senator Tolwar Wartol, who had planted a listening device in Leia's nanny droid T-2LC. Wartol leaked the news of the Imperial presence on Jakku to HoloNet News and took the opportunity to attack Mothma for being secretive and indecisive. After watching the HoloNet news broadcast, Chancellor Mothma conferred with her adviser Auxi and Admiral Ackbar. Ackbar supported her by pointing out that she had been wise for not disclosing the information immediately since she it for less than a standard day. ⏉]

Mon Mothma then realized that Senator Wartol had a leak or a spy. After reflecting on the situation, Mothma commented that her setback was one one the "necessary bumps and scratches of a growing democracy." In response to Wartol's leak, she instructed Auxi to contact HoloNet News to give her statement. Admiral Ackbar also agreed to send a probe droid and a scout ship to the Jakku system to gather intelligence on the Imperial presence. Leia urged her advisers to remain vigilant for traitors in their midst. ⏉]

The derailed resolution [ edit | edit source ]

Later, Chancellor Mothma met with the HoloNet News journalist Tracene Kane and the Sullustan cam-operator Birt to deliver her statement to the press. In her speech, Mothma reiterated that she had become aware of reports that the Empire had retreated to Jakku. She reassured the public that the military had sent a scout ship and a probe droid to confirm this information. While acknowledging rumors that the Imperial remnants had relocated to Jakku, she announced that she had convened an emergency session of the Senate in order to mobilize the armed services. After giving her press statement, Mon chatted with Tracene. When Tracene expressed sympathy for her predicament, Mon responded that the New Republic would persevere like the Rebel Alliance. ⏉]

That night, Chancellor Mothma gave a speech to the Galactic Senate urging them to authorize military intervention on Jakku. She presented data from the probe droids and the scout ship Oculus as evidence that the bulk of Imperial forces had relocated to Jakku. Following the speech, Mothma retreated to her office to recuperate. While chatting with Auxi, Admiral Ackbar entered the office to inform her that the vote had failed. Unknown to Mothma and her advisers, the Black Sun and Red Key crime syndicates were plotting to prolong the fighting. They had coerced or bribed five senators into voting against Mothma's motion. At the request of Princess Leia, Sinjir contracted the services of his slicer friend Conder Kyl. Conder found Wartol's listening device in T-2LC. After learning about the listening device, Chancellor Mothma decided to pay Senator Wartol a visit. ⏉]

Meeting a political rival [ edit | edit source ]

Making use of Chancellor Mothma visited Senator Wartol's Ganoidian tri-deck cruiser just as he was preparing to depart for Nakadia. When Wartol's Orishen guards tried to block her, Mothma warned them that turning her away with the threat of violence would not look good for the Senator. Chancellor Mothma managed to convince Senator Wartol to allow her to join him on his trip to Nakadia under the pretext of meeting with him. While the two shared a meal of roasted Nektods, Wartol asked about the purpose behind her visit since they were political opponents. Mothma replied they both had shared interests and wanted what was best for the galaxy. ⏉]

In private, Chancellor Mothma asked Wartol about her failed resolution to attack the Empire's fleet on Jakku, which had failed by five votes. Wartol tried to deny his involvement but Chancellor Mothma pointed out that the five dissenting senators Ashmin Ek, Rethalow, Dor Wieedo, Grelka Sorka, and Nim Tar had voted with him in the past and worked with him in various councils and caucuses. While Wartol had voted in favor of military intervention, Mothma observed that the five senators had taken their cues from him in the past. ⏉]

As the conversation dragged on, Mothma theorized that Wartol had convinced the five other senators to oppose the resolution while voting for it. When Mothma accused Wartol of sacrificing his principles, the Orishen responded that his people knew the meaning of sacrificing their world so that the Empire would not subjugate them. Despite Wartol's rhetoric about sacrifice, Mothma pointed out that he was sacrificing the New Republic's war efforts so that he could conquer the New Republic. She added that by manipulating the five senators, Wartol was sacrificing the safety of the galaxy. ⏉]

When Wartol accused her of being a weak and indulgent leader, Mothma insinuated that he had sabotaged the vote. Wartol reiterated his denial and accused her of indulging in conspiracy theories. In response, Mothma presented the listening device that Conder had extracted from T-2LC. When Wartol denied planting the bug, Mothma countered that he knew that the Empire was on Jakku and that he had ordered the guards to stop Sinjir and Temmin from leaving on the Millennium Falcon. When Wartol reiterated his denial, Mothma vowed to fight him at the next election. ⏉]

Intrigue on Nakadia [ edit | edit source ]

Wartol retorted that her re-vote was scheduled to take place on Nakadia in less than twelve hours and that she had little time to scramble the votes that she needed. However, Mothma then revealed a card up her sleeve she had smuggled in a small pta fruit. Since Nakadia was an agrarian world, it was classified as a Class A protected planet by the New Republic. Senator Wartol's yacht was prevented from landing by the Nakadian authorities since the pta fruit was considered a biosecurity hazard. Thus, Mothma succeeded in delaying the re-vote. ⏉]

This gave her allies Han Solo, Sinjir, Temmin, Conder Kyl, and the former New Republic soldier Jom Barell enough time to track down the five senators. Despite Conder being kidnapped by the Red Key syndicate, Jom managed to capture Rethalow. Rethalow revealed that the Black Sun and Red Key syndicates had coerced and bribed the senators into opposing Mothma's resolution. Sinjir and his team managed to defeat the criminal syndicate's plot by rescuing Conder and Senator Nim Tar's child. Posing as the Chancellor's adviser, Sinjir managed to convince the five senators to change their votes by offering to pardon them. ⏉]

Meanwhile, Chancellor Mothma and Senator Wartol finally cleared the Nakadian customs and addressed the press. To delay the proceedings, Mothma feigned a limp as they entered the Quarrow Senate house. During the session, Mothma gave a short but angry speech urging the senators to vote for intervention on Jakku. She urged them not to hesitate in ending the Empire. While Mothma feared that she sounded like Palpatine, Auxi reassured her that it was a great speech. Mothma was relieved when Auxi later informed her that her vote had passed. ⏉]

A new adviser [ edit | edit source ]

Following the Galactic Senate's decision to send military forces to Jakku, Chancellor Mothma returned to Chandrila. After learning of Sinjir's exploits, she secured a meeting with the former Imperial loyalty officer–turned New Republic operative. When Sinjir asked to go to Jakku, Mothma countered that he was not a soldier and that his talents were better applied elsewhere. Mothma offered to hire Sinjir as her new adviser to complement Auxi. She pointed out that she needed a cynic who distrusted the system. After some discussion, Sinjir accepted her job offer. ⏉]

Chancellor Mothma then sent Sinjir on his first assignment to deliver a small basket of pta fruits to her political rival Senator Wartol. Sinjir and his partner Conder visited the Orishen senator and caught him red-handed trying to trigger a remote-controlled bomb. While they failed to stop Wartol from detonating the bomb, the two managed to overpower the rogue Senator, who readily admitted to plotting to kill the Chancellor. The bomb destroyed Chancellor Mothma's office on Chandrila. While her adviser Auxi was killed, Mothma survived because she was outside the building. ⏉]

Despite the loss of her friend Auxi, Mothma refused to allow grief to cloud her judgment. With the Battle of Jakku ending in the New Republic's favor, Chancellor Mothma received word that Grand Vizier Mas Amedda had escaped Imperial captivity and was suing for peace. Chancellor Mothma accepted Amedda's offer and enlisted the help of her advisers Sinjir, Sondiv Sella, and Princess Leia. She arranged for the Imperial surrender to take place on Chandrila in the crystal cliffs north of Hanna City under an ancient tintolive tree. ⏉]

Galactic Concordance [ edit | edit source ]

During the meeting, Mas Amedda signed both the Imperial Instruments of Surrender and the Galactic Concordance. Per the terms of the Instrument of Surrender, the surviving remnants of the Empire were ordered to cease fighting and the Imperial government was dissolved. Mon Mothma also issued a further declaration designating all surviving Imperial military officers as war criminals. Non-combatant functionaries within the Imperial government were given conditional pardons provided they complied with the articles of the Galactic Concordance. Grand Vizier Amedda was pardoned and tasked with leading the Coruscant provisional government. Following the surrender ceremony, Mothma gave Sinjir a bottle of expensive lachrymead wine to thank him for his services to the New Republic. ⏉]

The Galactic Concordance formally ended hostilities between the New Republic and the defeated Galactic Empire. ⏊] The treaty forced the Empire to remain inside predetermined territories within the Core Worlds and the Inner Rim. Mothma urged the Republic to remain vigilant in the event that the conflict returned, and temporarily kept the New Republic Starfleet on wartime funding and alert status. ⏁] Once it became clear that the war was over, and the remnants of the Empire disappeared into the Unknown Regions, the Galactic Senate fulfilled Mothma's goal and passed the Military Disarmament Act. ⏊] Some time during her tenure, Mothma further reformed the Senate by establishing that member worlds would act as the Senate's capital on a rotating basis. ⏋] Rotating the capital, and in particular keeping it off of Coruscant, did much to convince member worlds that the New Republic would be different from its predecessor governments. ⏊]

Retirement [ edit | edit source ]

Sometime later, Mothma became ill and stepped down as Chancellor. However, her successors lacked Mothma's charisma, and failed to create that same political consensus as she did. In her absence, the New Republic fell into chaos and the Galactic Senate became divided into two factions: the Populists, who believed that individual member planets should retain their full sovereignty, and the Centrists, who favored a stronger galactic government and a larger military. ⏌]

Mothma showed her personal support for Leia after it was publicly revealed that she was the daughter of Darth Vader. Her message to Leia indicated that she had suspected the truth for some time before the announcement. ⏌]

Legacy [ edit | edit source ]

In some ways, Mon Mothma's actions contributed to the New Republic's eventual undoing. Her drive for ensuring peace and demilitarization eventually left the New Republic in a weakened state of unpreparedness that lacked the strength to combat the rise of the First Order. ⏍]


His mother&aposs death devastated him

Hitler left for Vienna despite his mother being unwell (while there, he failed his entrance exam for the Academy of Fine Arts). But he eventually returned home to take care of Klara, who&aposd been diagnosed with breast cancer. Hitler cooked his mother&aposs favorite meals and even did some cleaning. At the time he also restrained his temper and impatience while with his mother, which was unusual behavior for him.

When Klara passed away on December 21, 1907, Hitler was devastated. Her doctor, Eduard Bloch, would later write, "I have never seen anyone so prostrate with grief as Adolf Hitler." 

Dr. Bloch was Jewish, prompting some speculation that Hitler&aposs violent anti-Semitism arose, at least in part, because of Klara&aposs death. However, years later the doctor fared better than other Jews who were subject to Hitler&aposs rule. Dr. Bloch was able to emigrate to America — along with his wife, daughter and son-in-law — at a time when many others were kept from leaving. This preferential treatment was likely the result of his caring for Klara.


Battle of Montgisard

In November 1177, Sultan Saladin left Egypt to attack Ascalon. Baldwin’s health was quite bad, he was only able to use one hand to ride his horse. Baldwin, sixteen at that time, led the Frankish army and rode towards Ascalon to save the city. The Frankish army was outnumbered compared to the Muslim army (3000–4500 Frankish men vs 20000–26000 Muslim men). The two armies clashed near Montgisard near Ramla. Baldwin’s army totally crushed Saladin’s army.

The Muslim army retreated, and the Franks chased them for almost twelve miles. Saladin barely escaped death and fled towards Cairo with only a tenth of his army. This was a major blow to Saladin and it took him a long time to recover from it. This was the greatest achievement of the sixteen-year-old leper king. His victory made him a hero in his people’s eyes.


Contents

The name of France comes from the Germanic tribe known as the Franks. The Merovingian kings began as chieftains. The oldest known was Chlodio. Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. After his death, his kingdom was split between his sons into Soissons (Neustria), Paris, Orléans (Burgundy), and Metz (Austrasia). Several Merovingian monarchs brought back together the Frankish kingdoms and took the title of "King of the Franks". But upon their deaths, according to Frankish custom, the kingdom would often be split once again between their sons.

King of Paris
(Roi de Paris)
(595–629)

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power. The Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly brought back the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childerich and took the throne.

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Childeric III
(Childéric III)
743 November 751 • Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IV King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Three of the twelve kings during the 147-year Carolingian Dynasty – Odo, his brother Robert I and Robert's son in law Raoul/Rudolph – were not from the Carolingian Dynasty but from the rival Robertian Dynasty. The Robertian Dynasty became the Capetian Dynasty with when Hugh Capet took the throne in 987.

The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328 are generally called Valois and Bourbon.

Direct Capetians (987–1328) Edit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Hugh Capet
(Hugues Capet)
3 July 987 24 October 996 • Grandson of Robert I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
style="text-align:center" style="text-align:center"| Robert II the Pious, the Wise
(Robert II le Pieux, le Sage)
24 October 996 20 July 1031 • Son of Hugh Capet King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Henry I
(Henri Ier)
20 July 1031 4 August 1060 • Son of Robert II King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Philip I
(Philippe Ier l' Amoureux)
4 August 1060 29 July 1108 • Son of Henry I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis VI the Fat
(Louis VI le Gros)
29 July 1108 1 August 1137 • Son of Philip I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis VII the Young
(Louis VII le Jeune)
1 August 1137 18 September 1180 • Son of Louis VI King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Philip II Augustus
(Philippe II Auguste)
18 September 1180 14 July 1223 • Son of Louis VII King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis VIII the Lion
(Louis VIII le Lion)
14 July 1223 8 November 1226 • Son of Philip II Augustus King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
8 November 1226 25 August 1270 • Son of Louis VIII King of France
(Roi de France)
Philip III the Bold
(Philippe III le Hardi)
25 August 1270 5 October 1285 • Son of Louis IX King of France
(Roi de France)
Philip IV the Fair
(Philippe IV le Bel)
5 October 1285 29 November 1314 • Son of Philip III King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis X the Quarreller
(Louis X le Hutin)
29 November 1314 5 June 1316 • Son of Philip IV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
John I the Posthumous
(Jean Ier le Posthume)
15 November 1316 20 November 1316 • Son of Louis X King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Philip V the Tall
(Philippe V le Long)
20 November 1316 3 January 1322 • Son of Philip IV
• Younger brother of Louis X
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles IV the Fair
(Charles IV le Bel)
3 January 1322 1 February 1328 • Son of Philip IV
• Younger brother of Philip V
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

Not listed above are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI. Both were co-Kings with their fathers but died before them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are usually not listed as Kings of France.

House of Valois (1328–1589) Edit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Philip VI of Valois, the Fortunate
(Philippe VI de Valois, le Fortuné)
1 April 1328 22 August 1350 • Son of Charles of Valois, who was son of Philip III King of France
(Roi de France)
John II the Good
(Jean II le Bon)
22 August 1350 8 April 1364 • Son of Philip VI King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles V the Wise
(Charles V le Sage)
8 April 1364 16 September 1380 • Son of John II King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad
(Charles VI le Bienaimé, le Fol)
16 September 1380 21 October 1422 • Son of Charles V King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served
(Charles VII le Victorieux, le Bien-Servi)
21 October 1422 22 July 1461 • Son of Charles VI King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis XI the Prudent, the Universal Spider
(Louis XI le Prudent, l'Universelle Aragne)
22 July 1461 30 August 1483 • Son of Charles VII King of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VIII the Affable
(Charles VIII l'Affable)
30 August 1483 7 April 1498 • Son of Louis XI King of France
(Roi de France)

Valois–Orléans Branch (1498–1515) Edit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis XII Father of the People
(Louis XII le Père du Peuple)
7 April 1498 1 January 1515 • Great-grandson of Charles V
• Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
• By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)

Valois–Angoulême Branch (1515–1589) Edit

House of Bourbon (1589–1792) Edit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Henry IV, Good King Henry, the Green Gallant
(Henri IV, le Bon Roi Henri, le Vert-Galant)
2 August 1589 14 May 1610 • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
• Grandnephew of Francis I
• Second cousin, and by first marriage brother-in-law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIII the Just
(Louis XIII le Juste)
14 May 1610 14 May 1643 • Son of Henry IV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIV the Great, the Sun King
(Louis XIV le Grand, le Roi Soleil)
14 May 1643 1 September 1715 • Son of Louis XIII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XV the Beloved
(Louis XV le Bien-Aimé)
1 September 1715 10 May 1774 • Great-grandson of Louis XIV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XVI the Restorer of the French Liberty
(Louis XVI le Restaurateur de la Liberté Française)
10 May 1774 21 September 1792 • Grandson of Louis XV King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1791)

From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was titled King of France as Louis XVII. In reality, he was imprisoned in the Temple during this time. His power was held by the leaders of the Republic. On Louis XVII's death, his uncle Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII. He was only de facto King of France in 1814.

The First French Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte, declared himself Emperor of the French.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon I
(Napoléon Ier)
18 May 1804 11 April 1814 - Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis XVIII 11 April 1814 20 March 1815 • Younger brother of Louis XVI/ uncle of Louis XVII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon I
(Napoléon Ier)
20 March 1815 22 June 1815 - Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
Napoleon II
(Napoléon II)
[1]
22 June 1815 7 July 1815 Son of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis XVIII 7 July 1815 16 September 1824 • Younger brother of Louis XVI/ uncle of Louis XVII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles X 16 September 1824 2 August 1830 • Younger brother of Louis XVIII King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

The elder son of Charles X, the Dauphin Louis-Antoine, is sometimes said to have legally been the King of France as Louis XIX. This is in the 20 minutes between Charles X's formal signature of abdication and the Dauphin's own signature.
Henri d'Artois, Charles X's grandson, is said by monarchists to be the King of France, as Henry V from 2 August 1830 to 9 August 1830. He was never recognized by the French State. He is generally not in lists of official French monarchs.

There was a brief period (20 March 1815 to 8 July 1815) called the Hundred Days in which Louis XVIII was king somewhat before the time, but fled because of Napoleon I's return from Elba

The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Napoleon III
(Napoléon III)
2 December 1852 4 September 1870 • Nephew of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

The chronology of Head of State of France continues with the Presidents of France. There were short term periods by the Chief of State of the French State (1940–1944), the Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–1946) and the President of the French Senate (1969 and 1974) during the Fifth Republic.


Contents

Two Clone Wars–era Medals of Bravery on display

The Medal of Bravery existed as far back as the Clone Wars, a conflict fought between the Galactic Republic and the Separatist Confederacy from 22 to 19 BBY. At least four copies of it were exposed in the Officers' Club of the Jedi Temple of Coruscant, the Republic's capital world. Ώ]

More than twenty years later, the Medal of Bravery had become the highest military decoration awarded by the Alliance to Restore the Republic. Β] It was made of gold Γ] and attached to a brown ribbon, as it was designed to be draped over the head and worn around the neck. ΐ] It was presented to members of the Alliance who had displayed a great feat of bravery in battle.

In 0 ABY, for their efforts in destroying the Death Star, Luke Skywalker and Han Solo were awarded this honorable medal during the Royal Award Ceremony. ΐ] At first, Solo was reluctant to accept the award, arguing that the ones who deserved medals were the ones who didn't make it back. Princess Leia Organa, who was asked to preside over the ceremony, was very moved by the Corellian smuggler's words, and she spoke to him as a comrade, prompting Solo to accept the award. Δ]

Han Solo and Luke Skywalker after receiving the Medal following the destruction of the Death Star

The medal presentation ceremony was held in the Grand Audience Chamber, the topmost room of the Great Temple, a huge ziggurat that hosted the Rebellion's primary base on the moon of Yavin 4. ΐ] Chewbacca, who was Solo's best friend and copilot, did not receive a medal during the official ceremony, as Wookiees do not place any meaning in such tangible awards. Ε] However, at the request of Solo, Chewbacca was presented with his own medal in private, during the feast that followed the ceremony. Princess Leia, who was too short to put it over the Wookiee's neck, stood on a table to award this final medal. Α]

Some time after Arvel Crynyd's death in 4 ABY, which led to the destruction of the Star Dreadnought Executor, he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Bravery.


THE BLACK IRISH

Whence the (&lsquoBlack Irish&rdquo of Jamaica? JOSEPH J. WILLIAMS, S.J., Ph.D., Litt. D.,
F.R.S.A., F.R.G.S., F.A.G.S. ($2.00, New York: Dial Press, 1932.)
Five years residence in Jamaica impressed Father Williams with the fact that
the Jamaica Negroes were unlike all other Negro types that he had seen. Particularly
among those of Gold Coast origin he found claims and remnants of
Judaism. His resultant studies led to his Hebrewisms of West Africa (1930).
But another outstanding fact was the large number of Negroes with pure Irish
names. These negroes could not be explained as descendants of slaves owned by
early Irish colonists, for no such names appear among the land-owners in the survey
of 1670. So Father Williams turns to English records of the crushing of the Irish,
by Cromwell, with consequent deportations of large numbers of Irish as bondmen
or bondmaids to the West Indies-especially Barbados, where such names as
Cavan, Collins, Connolly, Donovan, Duffey, Dunn, Grogan, Kelly, McCann,
McSwiney, McDermott, Moriarity, O&rsquoBrien, O&rsquoNeal, O&rsquoHalloran, Walsh, abound
in the old cemeteries. Father Williams gives pictures of Jamaica negro children
named Collins, Walsh, McKeon, McDermott, Burke, Mackey, McCormack,
Kennedy. His bibliography on the deportations and barbarities includes 175
sources. Beyond this his 100-page monograph does not go.


The Irish arrived in Jamaica over 350 years ago in the mid-1600s at the time of British Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell's capture of Jamaica. When British Admirals Penn and Venables failed in their expedition to take Santo Domingo from the Spanish, they turned their attention to Jamaica, not wanting to return to Cromwell empty-handed. With reinforcements from British-held Barbados (many of whom were Irish) they made quick work of dispatching the weak Spanish defence and soon realized that they needed workers to support their new prize. They looked eastward to islands already under British control, Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Kitts and Montserrat, and imported young, mainly male, bonded servants, many of whom were Irish.

In 1641 Ireland's population stood close to 1.5 million. Following a 1648 battle in Ireland known as the "Siege of Drogheda" in which Irish rebels were brutally subdued, Oliver's son, Henry, was named Major General in command of English forces in Ireland. Under his jurisdiction, thousands of Irish men and women were shipped to the West Indies to provide a source of indentured labour. Between 1648 and 1655, over 12,000 political prisoners alone were sent to Barbados. This was the first set to come involuntarily as prior to that the Irish had willingly chosen to subject themselves to terms of indenture for the chance to start a new life in the New World upon completion of their contracts.

By 1652, Ireland's population had dwindled to a little over half a million famine, rebellion and forced deportation, all factors.Throughout the early years of the 1650s there was a push to send young men and women to the colonies in what the English believed was a "measure beneficial to the people removed, who might thus be made English and Christians and a great benefit to the West India sugar planters, who desired the men and boys for their bondsmen, and the women and Irish girls in a country where they had only Maroon women and Negresses to solace them" (Williams, 1932, pp. 10-11). The 13-year war from 1641-1654 had left behind large numbers of widows and deserted wives. In addition, many Irish men, their properties confiscated by Cromwell had no means of making a living. By 1655 some 6,400 Irish had been shipped off when in March all orders to capture "all wanderers, men and women and other such Irish in their possession" were revoked (Williams, pp. 12-13).


The first stop for many of the Irish, Catholic and non-Catholic, was Barbados where they worked from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. with a two-hour lunch break, under the command of an overseer. Shirt and drawers were their only clothes and their homes, cabins made of sticks and plantain leaves (Williams, 1932, p. 42).
Following the 1655 British conquest of Jamaica, Irish labourers were largely sent from Barbados as well as Ireland to get the island up and running under British control. Within a decade, when many Irish had served their terms or indenture, their names begin to appear among the lists of Jamaican planters and settlers (Williams, p. 53).

It is estimated that somewhere between 30,000 and 80,000 Irish were shipped from Ireland. One of the last shipments was made in 1841 from Limerick aboard the Robert Kerr. The Gleaner noted of these arrivals: "They landed in Kingston wearing their best clothes and temperance medals," meaning they did not drink alcohol (as quoted in Mullally, 2003, part 2, pg. 1). The Gleaner also noted of another set of arrivals in 1842: "The Irish are repeatedly intoxicated, drink excessively, are seen emerging from grog shops very dissolute and abandoned and are of very intemperate habits" (as quoted in Mullally, 2003, part 3, p. 2). So the Irish gained a reputation for being something of a mixed blessing ¬ saints and sinners.

However, other European immigrants did not seem to fare as well as the Irish in the tropical climate. In the mid-1830s, for example, when the government was particularly concerned about replacement labour for the newly-freed slaves on the sugar and coffee plantations, the over 1,000 Germans and close to 200 Portugese from Madeira, the Azores and Portugal notched a high mortality rate. The idea was to eventually create townships for the European immigrants in the island's highlands where the temperature was cooler and they would work as small farmers, labourers and artisans on coffee estates and cattle pens.

However, this would take time and in order to maintain pre-abolition levels of production, labour was needed in Jamaica's low-lands where the best land for sugar cultivation was located. Hence the implementation of bounties for European immigrants and the institution of ships like the Robert Kerr, known as "man-traps" and sub-agents who wandered into quiet Irish towns and attracted people with the promise for free passage, high wages and the hope of bettering their lives. The immigration of Europeans never filled the abolition labour gap and so by 1840 the government began to look to the Maltese, the free Negroes in the United States and the Asians. In 1842 laws to break up what had been completed of the townships were passed and the idea of highland colonization was abandoned.

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 &ndash 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Cromwell was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

On 6 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II as King of Great Britain in succession to his father, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted Presbyterianism throughout the British Isles. When negotiations stalled, Charles authorised General Montrose to land in the Orkney Islands with a small army to threaten the Scots with invasion, in the hope of forcing an agreement more to his liking. Montrose feared that Charles would accept a compromise, and so chose to invade mainland Scotland anyway. He was captured and executed. Charles reluctantly promised that he would abide by the terms of a treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament at Breda, and support the Solemn League and Covenant, which authorised Presbyterian church governance across Britain. Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, Charles II formally agreed to the Covenant his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters.

Cromwell left Ireland in May 1650 and several months later, invaded Scotland after the Scots had proclaimed Charles II as king. Cromwell was much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians, some of whom had been his allies in the First English Civil War, than he was to Irish Catholics. He described the Scots as a people "fearing His [God's] name, though deceived". He made a famous appeal to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, urging them to see the error of the royal alliance&mdash"I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ, think it possible you may be mistaken." The Scots' reply was robust: "would you have us to be sceptics in our religion?" This decision to negotiate with Charles II led Cromwell to believe that war was necessary.

Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands.

From the book:

White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America by Colin G. Calloway


The Macleods of Dunvegan suffered huge casualties when Oliver Cromwell defeated the Scots at Worcester, and Cromwell transported hundreds of Scots prisoners as indentured servants to Virginia and the West Indies. Cromwell invaded Scotland in 1650 and 1651 and built a fort at Inverness &ldquoto preserve the peace of the country, and keep the highlands in awe, which they effectually did all his time,&rdquo wrote Daniel Defoe, who toured the region in the 1720s.

Christina Snyder review, Quote:

Calloway borrows his title from Georgia's founder James Oglethorpe, who raised a motley army of "White people, Indians, and highlanders" to fight against Spanish Floridians. In Oglethorpe's time, many Britons categorized Highland Scots and Indians as savage non-whites, pointing out that both held land communally, used kinship to structure their societies, and maintained warrior traditions. Highlanders and Indians, Calloway argues, did have much in common, but he emphasizes their parallel and sometimes convergent historical experiences rather than their seemingly similar cultures. Living at the borders of an expanding English empire, Highlanders and Indians confronted colonialism with all its variegated assaults on their autonomy, land, and culture. Calloway, the son of a Highland Scot and a renowned scholar of Native American history, is well poised to explore the tangled histories of these two groups.

Charles II, House of Stuart, (29 May 1630 &ndash 6 February 1685)

After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's chances of regaining the Crown at first seemed slim as Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. However, the new Lord Protector, with no power base in either Parliament or the New Model Army, was forced to abdicate in 1659 and the Protectorate was abolished. During the civil and military unrest which followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Monck and his army marched into the City of London and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament excluded in December 1648 during Pride's Purge. The Long Parliament dissolved itself and for the first time in almost 20 years, there was a general election. The outgoing Parliament designed the electoral qualifications so as to ensure, as they thought, the return of a Presbyterian majority.

The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons which was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians. The new so-called Convention Parliament assembled on 25 April 1660, and soon afterwards received news of the Declaration of Breda, in which Charles agreed, amongst other things, to pardon many of his father's enemies. The English Parliament resolved to proclaim Charles king and invite him to return, a message that reached Charles at Breda on 8 May 1660. In Ireland, a convention had been called earlier in the year, and on 14 May it declared for Charles II as King. Charles II, who dated his accession from the death of his father, did not take up the reins of government until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if Charles had succeeded his father as king in 1649. In that same year, Charles I was canonised as Saint Charles Stuart and King Charles the Martyr by the Church of England and is venerated throughout the Anglican Communion.

Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he himself favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The major foreign policy issue of Charles's early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In 1670, Charles entered into the secret treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France. Louis agreed to aid Charles in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay Charles a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Roman Catholicism at an unspecified future date.

Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed "Popish Plot" sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir (James, Duke of York) was a Roman Catholic. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were killed or forced into exile. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed.

Charles was popularly known as the Merrie Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no children, but Charles acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children by various mistresses. As illegitimate children were excluded from the succession, he was succeeded by his brother James.

Note in reading these excerpts from the book, please ignore the obvious Albino nonsense, and the obviously bogus Whitenized portrait, and stay with the facts.

Quote: First of all he had an abnormal darkness of complexion, a truly saturnine tint. This darkness was the subject of comment from first. His mother wrote jokingly to her sister-in-law that she had give birth to a black baby and to a friend in France that 'he was so dark that she was ashamed of him'. She would send his portrait 'as soon as he is a littler fairer'. But Charles never did become fairer. Later the sobriquet 'the Black Boy' would be used, still commemorated in English inn signs.

There was even a 'fanatic' fantasy at the time of the Popish Plot in the 1670s, that Charles had been fathered on Henrietta Maria (see her metal above), by a 'black Scotsman' - a neat combination of the two prejudices of the time, against the Catholics and the Scots. So it became convenient to refer to the then King as that 'black Bastard'.

James II & VII, House of Stuart, (14 October 1633O.S. &ndash 16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II and King of Scots as James VII, from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Members of Britain's political and religious elite increasingly opposed him for being pro-French and pro-Catholic, and for his designs on becoming an absolute monarch.

When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded, and leading nobles called on William III of Orange (his son-in-law and nephew) to land an invasion army from the Netherlands, which he did. James fled England (and thus was held to have abdicated) in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was replaced by William of Orange who became king as William III, ruling jointly with his wife (James's daughter) Mary II. Thus William and Mary, both Protestants, became joint rulers in 1689. James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in the summer of 1690, James returned to France. He lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV.

The Glorious Revolution - No estimate of casualities.

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England.

After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at Torbay. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, and anti-Catholic riots in several towns, James's regime collapsed, largely by a lack of resolve shown by the king. However, this was followed by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundee's rising in Scotland. In England's geographically-distant American colonies, the revolution led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government. Following a defeat of his forces at the Battle of Reading on 9 December, James and his wife fled the nation James, however, returned to London for a two-week period that culminated in his final departure for France on 23 December. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William in February 1689 convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs.

The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For British Catholics its effects were disastrous both socially and politically: Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament for over a century, were denied commissions in the army the monarch was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic, a prohibition that continues to 2011. The Revolution led to limited toleration for nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: never since has the monarch held absolute power.

William III & II (4 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702) was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William III of Orange over Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he reigned as William III over England and Ireland. By coincidence, his regnal number (III) was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy". In what became known as the "Glorious Revolution", on 5 November 1688 William invaded England in an action that ultimately deposed King James II & VII and won him the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland. In the British Isles, William ruled jointly with his wife, Mary II, until her death on 28 December 1694. The period of their joint reign is often referred to as "William and Mary".

A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. Largely because of that reputation, William was able to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory over James at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is commemorated by the Orange Institution in Northern Ireland and parts of Scotland to this day. His reign marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.

Anne (6 February 1665 &ndash 1 August 1714) ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Act of Union, two of her realms, England and Scotland, were united as a single sovereign state, the Kingdom of Great Britain. Anne's Catholic father, James II and VII, was deposed during the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688. Her Protestant sister Mary and Mary's husband, Anne's brother-in-law and cousin William III, became joint monarchs. After Mary's death in 1694, William continued as sole monarch until his own death and Anne's accession in 1702. Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely than their opponents, the Whigs, to share her Anglican religious views. The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until in 1710 Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences. Despite seventeen pregnancies, Anne died without surviving children and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. She was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover, who was a descendant of the Stuarts through his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth, daughter of James VI and I.

George I, House of Hanover, (George Louis German: Georg Ludwig 28 May 1660 &ndash 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698. George was born in Hanover, in what is now Germany, and inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. A succession of European wars expanded his German domains during his lifetime, and in 1708 he was ratified as prince-elector of Hanover. At the age of 54, after the death of Queen Anne of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover. Although over fifty Roman Catholics bore closer blood relationships to Anne, the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited Catholics from inheriting the British throne. George, however, was Anne's closest living Protestant relative.

In reaction, Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart, but their attempts failed. During George's reign the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister. Towards the end of his reign, actual power was held by Sir Robert Walpole, Britain's first de facto prime minister. George died on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried.


Contents

Each Pokémon has unique abilities that affect their ability to attack and defend during a battle. Trainers can look at the HP and CP of their Pokémon for basic information on its abilities. For more detailed information on a Pokémon, trainers can ask their Team Leader to appraise their stats by observing the following directions:

  • In Map View, touch the Main Menu
  • Touch Pokémon
  • From the list, select a Pokémon.
  • Open the Menu
  • Touch Appraise

Analysis

The bars on the bottom left corner display the stat of a Pokémon's Attack, Defense and HP respectively. A stamp is shown above the appraisal bars to represent the IV range of the Pokémon, similar to the original system. The IV groups can be searched by typing 0*, 1*, 2*, 3*, or 4*.